Guyton Ch69 Lipid Metabolism; Hughes 2020 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Guyton Ch69 Lipid Metabolism; Hughes 2020 Deck (12)
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1

Almost all fats in the diet are absorbed via the intestinal lymph. Which of the following is true in regards to this absorption?

a. Monoglycerides and fatty acids are resynthesized into triglycerides and enter the lymph as apoproteins

b. Once fatty acids are released from chylomicrons, they enter fat cells and can be synthesized into triglycerides

c. Chylomicrons are transported upward through the venous blood and empty into the thoracic duct

d. Chylomicrons have a half-life of 12 hours

Almost all fats in the diet are absorbed via the intestinal lymph. Which of the following is true in regards to this absorption?

a. Monoglycerides and fatty acids are resynthesized into triglycerides and enter the lymph as apoproteins

b. Once fatty acids are released from chylomicrons, they enter fat cells and can be synthesized into triglycerides

c. Chylomicrons are transported upward through the venous blood and empty into the thoracic duct

d. Chylomicrons have a half-life of 12 hours

2

Production of chylomicrons is the main method of lipid absorption from the intestinal tract. Which of the following is true in regards to chylomicron hydrolysis?

a. Lipoprotein lipase on the surface of the chylomicron remnants are secreted by liver cells

b. Apolipoprotein-E lipase is transported to the surface of capillary endothelial cells where it causes hydrolysis of triglycerides

c. Chylomicron remnants are cholesterol enriched and persist in the plasma until they reach the liver and are cleared from circulation

d. Chylomicron remnants are phospholipid enriched and persist in the plasma until they reach the adipose and are cleared from circulation

Production of chylomicrons is the main method of lipid absorption from the intestinal tract. Which of the following is true in regards to chylomicron hydrolysis?

a. Lipoprotein lipase on the surface of the chylomicron remnants are secreted by liver cells

b. Apolipoprotein-E lipase is transported to the surface of capillary endothelial cells where it causes hydrolysis of triglycerides

c. Chylomicron remnants are cholesterol enriched and persist in the plasma until they reach the liver and are cleared from circulation

d. Chylomicron remnants are phospholipid enriched and persist in the plasma until they reach the adipose and are cleared from circulation

3

Which of the following correctly describes a potential stimulus for free fatty acid mobilization?

a. When glucose availability is low, alpha-glycerophosphate is also low, causing inadequate glycerol availability and results in hydrolysis

b. Alpha-glycerophosphate is activated by many endocrine hormones and promotes rapid hydrolysis

c. Hormone-sensitive cellular lipase activated from endocrine gland production decreases hydrolysis of triglycerides

d. When glucose availability is low, alpha-glycerophosphate levels are high causing excess glycerol availability which results in hydrolysis

Which of the following correctly describes a potential stimulus for free fatty acid mobilization?

a. When glucose availability is low, alpha-glycerophosphate is also low, causing inadequate glycerol availability and results in hydrolysis

b. Alpha-glycerophosphate is activated by many endocrine hormones and promotes rapid hydrolysis

c. Hormone-sensitive cellular lipase activated from endocrine gland production decreases hydrolysis of triglycerides

d. When glucose availability is low, alpha-glycerophosphate levels are high causing excess glycerol availability which results in hydrolysis

4

True or False?

Free fatty acids are transported in blood in combination with albumin.

True or False?

Free fatty acids are transported in blood in combination with albumin.

5

Differentiate between each of the following lipoproteins:

a. VLDL
b. IDL
c. LDL
d. HDL

Differentiate between each of the following lipoproteins:

a. VLDL
b. IDL
c. LDL
d. HDL

6

Adipose is one of the major sites of fat storage. Which of the following is correct in terms of the structure and function of adipocytes?

a. Adipocytes are modified epithelial cells

b. Adipocytes maintain triglycerides in liquid form

c. Adipocytes can synthesize large amounts of fatty acids and triglycerides from carbohydrates

d. Triglycerides in adipocytes are renewed every 2 to 3 days

Adipose is one of the major sites of fat storage. Which of the following is correct in terms of the structure and function of adipocytes?

a. Adipocytes are modified epithelial cells

b. Adipocytes maintain triglycerides in liquid form

c. Adipocytes can synthesize large amounts of fatty acids and triglycerides from carbohydrates

d. Triglycerides in adipocytes are renewed every 2 to 3 days

7

The liver is a major site of fat storage and metabolism. What are the three principal functions of lipid metabolism in the liver?

The liver is a major site of fat storage and metabolism. What are the three principal functions of lipid metabolism in the liver?

8

Triglyceride metabolism results in a net gain of 146 molecules of ATP. Which of the following is correct in regards to ATP formation from triglycerides?

a. Glycerol, produced by hydrolysis of the triglyceride, is converted to G3P and enters the glycolytic pathway

b. Triglycerides must be modified in the mitochondria before they can be utilized for energy

c. Fatty acids are progressively degraded in 2 carbon segments in the form of acetyl coenzyme A

d. Acetyl-CoA molecules enter the TCA cycle where they combine with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid that later degrades into carbon dioxide and hydrogen

e. All of the above are true

Triglyceride metabolism results in a net gain of 146 molecules of ATP. Which of the following is correct in regards to ATP formation from triglycerides?

a. Glycerol, produced by hydrolysis of the triglyceride, is converted to G3P and enters the glycolytic pathway

b. Triglycerides must be modified in the mitochondria before they can be utilized for energy

c. Fatty acids are progressively degraded in 2 carbon segments in the form of acetyl coenzyme A

d. Acetyl-CoA molecules enter the TCA cycle where they combine with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid that later degrades into carbon dioxide and hydrogen

e. All of the above are true

9

Which of the following correctly describes the consequences of inadequate carbohydrate metabolism?

a. Ketone bodies freely diffuse out of the liver and travel to the peripheral tissues

b. Oxaloacetate deficiency occurs and limits entry of acetyl CoA into the TCA cycle

c. Acetyl CoA molecules combine to form acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in high concentrations leading to extreme acidosis

d. All of the above are consequences of inadequate carbohydrate metabolism

Which of the following correctly describes the consequences of inadequate carbohydrate metabolism?

a. Ketone bodies freely diffuse out of the liver and travel to the peripheral tissues

b. Oxaloacetate deficiency occurs and limits entry of acetyl CoA into the TCA cycle

c. Acetyl CoA molecules combine to form acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in high concentrations leading to extreme acidosis

d. All of the above are consequences of inadequate carbohydrate metabolism

10

Hormone sensitive lipase is an important effector of lipid metabolism. Which of the following hormones does not act through direct stimulation of this hormone?

a. Catecholamines

b. Thyroid hormone

c. Corticotropin

d. Growth hormone

Hormone sensitive lipase is an important effector of lipid metabolism. Which of the following hormones does not act through direct stimulation of this hormone?

a. Catecholamines

b. Thyroid hormone

c. Corticotropin

d. Growth hormone

11

Which of the following is NOT a specific use of phospholipids?

a. Initiation of clot formation via thromboplastin

b. Constituent of many cell membranes

c. Makes the skin highly resistant to absorption of water-soluble substances

d. Insulate electrical current of the nervous system via sphingomyelin

Which of the following is NOT a specific use of phospholipids?

a. Initiation of clot formation via thromboplastin

b. Constituent of many cell membranes

c. Makes the skin highly resistant to absorption of water-soluble substances

d. Insulate electrical current of the nervous system via sphingomyelin

12

What four hormones produced from endocrine glands require cholesterol for synthesis?

What four hormones produced from endocrine glands require cholesterol for synthesis?