Flashcards in Gynecological Cancers Deck (27):
In early disease, does cervical cancer have symptoms?
cervical cancer usually does not cause signs or symptoms. Watery vaginal discharge, intermittent spotting, or postcoital bleeding may be signs of a lesion
what is the most common pathology for cervical cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma is 85%
Can cervical cancer be considered an STD?
according to current, it can. Both squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of the cervix are etiologically related to infection with HPV, primarily types 16 and 18
in late disease, what are some signs of cervical cancer?
bladder or rectal dysfunction or fistulas, and pain
What test should be performed for screening of cervical cancer? How about diagnosis of cervical cancer?
pap smear and biopsy respectively.
If cervical cancer goes untreated, what do 2/3 of women die from?
If cervical cancer goes untreated, almost 2/3 die from uremia when ureteral obstruction is bilateral. Pain is in the back
How can we prevent cervical cancer?
2 vaccines: Gardasil and Cervarix to prevent cervical cancers caused by 16 and 18
How should we treat cervical cancer?
if women are past childbearing age, a pelvic surgery might be an option. If they are not, treatment can be managed by radiation with or without chemo depending on the stage of the disease. Surgery vs Radiation therapy for stage I and IIA disease is the same. However, some disadvantages of radiation are injury to surrounding organs, vaginal stenosis, sexual dysfunction, ovarian failure
what is the number one presenting sign of endometrial cancer?
is a pap smear positive or negative for endometrial cancer?
negative, it is NOT RELIABLE.
what is the usual age for endometrial cancer, and the risk factors?
It occurs most often in women 50-70 years of age. Obestity, nulliparity, diabetes, and polycystic ovaries with prolonged anovulation, unopposed estrogen therapy, and the extended use of tamoxifen for the treatment of breast cancer are also risk factors. Family history of colon cancer puts women at higher risk.
what are the clinical signs of endometrial cancer?
- post menopausal bleeding
- peri menopausal bleeding
- irregular pre-menopausal bleeding
what is the treatment for endometrial cancer?
Surgery is definitive treatment:
Total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
What are the risk factors of for vulvar cancer?
1. history of genital warts
2. history of prolonged vulvar irritation, with pruritus, local discomfort, or slight blood discharge.
What is the histological majority of vulvar cancer?
- majority are squamous lesions, and usually occur in women over 50
- some may relate to HPV
How do you DIAGNOSE vulvar cancer?
biopsy, multiple punches is best.
How does vulvar cancer usually spread?
- vulvar cancer tends to spread by direct extension into the vagina, urethra, perineum, and anus, with discontinuous spread int the inguinal and femoral lymph nodes. CT or MRI of the pelvis or abdomen is generally not required except in advanced cases for planning therapeutic options.
What is the treatment for vulvar cancer?
-wide variety of options: topical chemo, laser ablation, wide local excision, skinning vulvectomy, and simple vulvectomy
What are the initial symptoms of ovarian cancer?
1. Vague GI discomfort, pelvic pressure or pain.
2. Many cases of early-stage cancer are asymptomatic
What are the different types of ovarian cancer?
There are epithelial, germ cell, stromal carcinomas, and metastatic
Women with what mutation have a much higher risk of ovarian cancer?
BRAC1 or BRAC2. screening starting at age 35 or 5-10 years earlier than the earliest age that ovarian cancer was first diagnosed in a family member. screening should be done every 6 months and do a CA-125 levels.
what are some of the signs of ovarian germ cell tumors?
i. Most frequent in late teens or early twenties
ii. Fertility concerns
iii. Often present with acute pain, and can be confused with an appy or ectopic pregnancy (so you want to order appropriate tests to rule those out!)
iv. CHEMO SENSITIVE!!! (use chemo instead of comprising child bearing ability)
v. Almost always unilateral
describe ovarian epithelial type:
MOST COMMON TYPE!!!
i. Leading cause of gynecological death
ii. Age: primary post-menopausal
iii. Race: Caucasian> black
iv. Geopgraphy: European
v. Reproduction: low parity, breast feeding, OCP (protective), ERT (no effect
What labs may be indicated for ovarian cancer?
CA 125 is elevated in 80% of women with epithelial ovarian cancer but only in 50% of women with early disease. However, it can also be elevated in benign endometriosis so it is not clinically specific. Other markers such as hCG, LD, or alpha fetoprotein may be indicators of a tumor being present
What imaging may be needed for ovarian cancer?
What is the definitive treatment for epithelial type ovarian cancer?
surgery. Advanced disease→ removal of all visible tumor is recommened. EXCEPT IN WOMEN WITH LOW GRADE CANCER, post operative chemo therapy is recommended
Mammogram is also recommended in those who are younger than 35 due to the increased co-risk of breast cancer