Pediatric Injuries and Emergencies Flashcards Preview

Adult and Ped Test 7 > Pediatric Injuries and Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Injuries and Emergencies Deck (27):
1

what age range has the highest rates of accidental injury?

infants 1-2 years old.

2

What is the most common cause of death younger than a year

suffocation

3

what is the most common cause of death in pre-schoolers and school-aged kids?

MVAs

4

Posoining under 5 and poisoning in teens:

under 5 is accidental
teens do it mostly intentionally

5

What are the most common agents ingested by young kids?

cosmetics, hair products, cleaning solutions, analgesics

6

What three meds lead to hospitalizations?

tyleonol, lead antidepressants

7

What poisons cause death?

carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, illicit drugs, caustic ingestions.

8

What are the five routes for accidental poisonings?

1. ingestion
2. dermal
3. ophthalmic
4. inhalation
5. envenomation

9

what odors match what substances?

bitter almond = cyanide
garlic = arsenic
sweet= chloroform, acetone, ether
violet - turpentine

10

Why is alkaline ingestion so bad?

because it is tasteless so kids continue to drink. It liquefies mucosal surfaces, heals with strictures, increases risk of esophageal carcinoma.

11

Is acidic ingestion worse or alkaline?

alkaline. acidic is sour tasting so kids stop drinking.

12

Metabolic acidosis is caused by agents such as:

methanol or ethylene glycol

13

If a kid ingests triclyclic antidpressatns, what can you look for on the EKG?

wide QRS complex.

14

What are several ways to do GI decontamination?

1. activated charcoal is treatment of choice
2. emesis may occur spontaneously : induced emesis is NO LONGER RECOMMENDED!
3. Gastric lavage

15

What should tap water be kept under (temperature wise)

130F or 54.4 C

16

What burn appearance should rasise suspicion of child abuse?

stocking and glove

17

What is the most frequent pathogen associated with burn infection?

pseudomonas aeruginosa...they most often come from own flora. others come from gram negative

18

What burns are ALWAYS an emergency?

burns to the eyes

19

Who does the rule of nines apply to?

>15 years old
9% = head, each up extremity
18% = each side of torso, each lower extremity
1% = genitalia.

20

How is TBSA calculated in infants?

1% = hand and fingers

21

What is SIDS?

Sudden death of an infant <1 year that remains unexplained after complete postmortem exam. Leading cause of death in infants 1 mo to 1 year.

22

Risk factors for IDS?

Low SES
Non-white
Mother who smokes
preterm or SGA
siblings of prior SIDS victims
Infants recovering from mild URIs
Sleep position

23

What are the theories for SIDS?

Apnea: central apnea; obstructional apnea or combo of both.

obstruction, hypoxia, etc

24

What is near drowning?

survival for at least 24 hours after asphyxia because of submersion. Problem = neurologic sequalae.

25

What are the pros and cons of cold water submersion?

cons= cold heart is more likely to have arrhythias, tissue 02 is impaired by cold

pros= protective effect by reducing brain metabolism and 02 consumption.

surivial rates are better in cold water than in warm.

26

What are some unfavorable factors for near drowning?

>3 or more...

over 3 years old
submersion for 5 minutes
greater than 10 min delay is resuscitation
coma on admit to ER
pH less than 7.10

27

What will the PE show you for near drowning?

PE
1. dialted pupils
2. increased muscle tone
3. bradycardia
4. slow, shallow respirations
5. CNS depression
6. if large amounts of water swallowed--- then electrolyte abnormalities. (dilution hypnatremia/hypokalemia).