Flashcards in Pediatric Injuries and Emergencies Deck (27):
what age range has the highest rates of accidental injury?
infants 1-2 years old.
What is the most common cause of death younger than a year
what is the most common cause of death in pre-schoolers and school-aged kids?
Posoining under 5 and poisoning in teens:
under 5 is accidental
teens do it mostly intentionally
What are the most common agents ingested by young kids?
cosmetics, hair products, cleaning solutions, analgesics
What three meds lead to hospitalizations?
tyleonol, lead antidepressants
What poisons cause death?
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, illicit drugs, caustic ingestions.
What are the five routes for accidental poisonings?
what odors match what substances?
bitter almond = cyanide
garlic = arsenic
sweet= chloroform, acetone, ether
violet - turpentine
Why is alkaline ingestion so bad?
because it is tasteless so kids continue to drink. It liquefies mucosal surfaces, heals with strictures, increases risk of esophageal carcinoma.
Is acidic ingestion worse or alkaline?
alkaline. acidic is sour tasting so kids stop drinking.
Metabolic acidosis is caused by agents such as:
methanol or ethylene glycol
If a kid ingests triclyclic antidpressatns, what can you look for on the EKG?
wide QRS complex.
What are several ways to do GI decontamination?
1. activated charcoal is treatment of choice
2. emesis may occur spontaneously : induced emesis is NO LONGER RECOMMENDED!
3. Gastric lavage
What should tap water be kept under (temperature wise)
130F or 54.4 C
What burn appearance should rasise suspicion of child abuse?
stocking and glove
What is the most frequent pathogen associated with burn infection?
pseudomonas aeruginosa...they most often come from own flora. others come from gram negative
What burns are ALWAYS an emergency?
burns to the eyes
Who does the rule of nines apply to?
>15 years old
9% = head, each up extremity
18% = each side of torso, each lower extremity
1% = genitalia.
How is TBSA calculated in infants?
1% = hand and fingers
What is SIDS?
Sudden death of an infant <1 year that remains unexplained after complete postmortem exam. Leading cause of death in infants 1 mo to 1 year.
Risk factors for IDS?
Mother who smokes
preterm or SGA
siblings of prior SIDS victims
Infants recovering from mild URIs
What are the theories for SIDS?
Apnea: central apnea; obstructional apnea or combo of both.
obstruction, hypoxia, etc
What is near drowning?
survival for at least 24 hours after asphyxia because of submersion. Problem = neurologic sequalae.
What are the pros and cons of cold water submersion?
cons= cold heart is more likely to have arrhythias, tissue 02 is impaired by cold
pros= protective effect by reducing brain metabolism and 02 consumption.
surivial rates are better in cold water than in warm.
What are some unfavorable factors for near drowning?
>3 or more...
over 3 years old
submersion for 5 minutes
greater than 10 min delay is resuscitation
coma on admit to ER
pH less than 7.10