Flashcards in Intro To Oncology Deck (26):
Cancer is defined by 4 main things. What are they?
1. Division = uncontrolled cell division
2. Growth = formation of limp or large number of abnormal white cells
3. Mutation = changes to how the cell is viewed by the immune system.
4. Spread = ability to move within the body and survive in another part.
In cancer, what has happened to the regulation of the cell cycle.
There is uncontrolled oncogene activity. Oncogene says go! And there may be a mutation or a lack of tumor suppressor gene. Tumor suppressor gene says stop!
How is there loss of normal growth control?
normally, if a cell has a bad mutation, apoptosis will take care of it. However, in cancer, there is no way for that to happen.
What is mutations role in cancer?
mutations can alter genes that regulate the cell cycle, and whether or not a cell dies. cells are allowed to proliferate because lack of control.
What are the main categories of cancer?
1. carcinoma = skin or in tissues that line or cover the internal organs.
2. sarcoma = bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood, or other supportive or connective tissue.
3. CNS= brain and spinal cord
4. leukemia = blood cells in the bone marrow
5. lymphoma/myeloma = immune system
How does hereditary factors play a role in cancer?
genes have been isolated for several cancers
How does chemical play a role?
certain chemicals have been linked to cancer prevalence and can cause mutations in genes.
What role does immunity play in cancer?
HIV/AIDS or the immunosuppressed are more likely to get cancer.
How do viruses increase chance of cancer?
few viruses can trigger the development of cancer. some of the viral genetic info carried in these nucleic acid is inserted into the chromosome of the infected cell and this causes the cell to become malignant.
What is an example of a bacteria that causes cancer? parasite?
H. Pylori = MALT lymphoma
Schistosoma spp = bladder cancer
What is linked to 1 in 3 cancer deaths?
What are some physical causes of cancer?
UV source, radiation
You might see dysphagia with what cancer? hoarseness? pain/fractures?
dsyphagia = esophageal
hoarseness = laryngeal
pain/fractures = multiple myeloma
What does staging do?
It establishes the extend to the disease. It helps with determining treatment, determining prognosis, and study comparisons.
Most tumors use what system to grade them?
What is the Ann Arbor staging?
stage 1 = single location
stage 2 = two or more locations same sides of diaphragm
stage 3 = two or more locations both sides of diaphragm
stage 4 = disseminated
What staging system does CLL use?
what is performance status?
it is consistent predictor of treatment tolerance and outcome. A measure of the patient's overall well being.
When is surgery selected for cancer?
1. if there is a reasonable chance to remove all malignant cells
2. risk of surgery is less than risk of cancer
3. decreasing tumor burden on the other treatment modalities
when should surgery not be used?
1. there is a high chance of metastatic disease that cannot be effectively treated with other modalities
2. the operation will affect vital structures that will leave the patient with a poor QOL
What is chemo's primary role?
in disease that is not surgically resectable or is systemically spread. evolving role in neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapies. preferred treatment if tumor is sensitive.
How does chemo work?
cell kill follows a logarithmic pattern. Toxicity is predictable.
Radiation is frequently combined with....
other treatment modalities
What is routinely under treated in cancer patients?
pain management. also, 80% of cancer patients suffer from depression.
What UV light is the primary cause of skin cancer?