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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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1

What are the 4 human tissues?

Epithelia
Muscle
Nervous
Connective

2

What are the 4 classifications of bone?

Long - femur
Short - fingers, tarsal
Flat - frontal
Irregular - vertebra

3

What are the 3 types of joints?

Fibrous - no joint cavity; connected by CT
Cartilaginous - entirely cartilage between; usually lots of movement e.g. fingers
Synovial - synovial fluid lubricates joint, continuous with periosteum; lots of movement e.g. H&N, hips

4

What does the medial plane separate the body into?

Vertical through midline of body
Separates into equal L&R portions
Lateral - away from midline
Medial - towards midline
Intermediate - between medial and lateral

5

How is the body separated into anterior and posterior?

Coronal plane
Anterior - towards front
Posterior - towards back

6

What does the transverse plane separate the body into?

Superior - above
Inferior - below

7

Define proximal and distal

Proximal - close to P.O.O.
Distal - far from P.O.O.

8

Define superficial and deep

Superficial - near/on surface
Deep - more internal

9

What are the 2 surfaces of the hand called?

Palmer - palm
Dorsal - back

10

What are the 2 surfaces of the feet called?

Plantar - sole
Dorsal - top

11

What is meant by ipsilateral?

On the same side of median plane

12

What is meant by contralateral?

On opposite sides of median plane

13

Define flexion and extension

Flexion - towards P.O.O.
Extension - away from P.O.O.

14

Define abduction and adduction

Abduction - away from body
Adduction - towards body

15

What are medial and lateral rotations?

Medial - towards midline
Lateral - away from midline

16

What is circumduction?

Movement in circular manner

17

Define protraction and retraction

Protraction - move forward
Retraction - move back

18

Define inversion and eversion

Inversion - big toe towards midline
Eversion - sole away from midline

19

Define pronation and supination

Pronation - roll of foot inwards, arch flattening
Supination - outward roll of foot

20

What is opposition of thumb?

Turning and rotating of thumb to touch each fingertip

21

What are surface markings?

External, visual anatomical features

22

What is the atlas?

FIRST of the cervical vertebrae
Does not have a vertebral body

23

What is the axis?

SECOND cervical vertebrae

24

What are the clavicle?

Collar bones

25

What are the scapula?

Shoulder blades

26

Describe a hinge joint

Synovial joint where 2 or more bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend

27

Describe a ball and socket joint

Synovial joint in which ball shaped surface of bone fits into cup like depression in another bone
Allows movement around indefinite number of axes

28

What is the name of the opening to the ear canal?

External auditory meatus

29

What are the 4 main sutures?

Coronal - frontal and parietal
Sagittal - parietals
Lambdoid - parietals and occipital
Squamous - parietal and temporal

30

What is Pterion and why is it important?

Join of frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bones
Weakest part of skull, traumatic blow may rupture meddle meningeal artery causing epidural haematoma