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Flashcards in Dental Materials Deck (293)
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What 2 forms can GICs come in?

Encapsulated or hand mix (liquid/powder)


Why is encapsulated preferable?

Mixed for you
Can out straight into mouth


How can self mix go wrong?

Too much powder or liquid will set slower/faster and alter consistency and binding properties


What are GICs used for?

Cement and fillings


What forms can zinc oxide eugenol and calcium hydroxide come in?

2 paste (temp-bond, Dycal) or liquid/powder


How are 2 paste ZOE and calcium hydroxide cements mixed?

Equal amount of both
15s mix time till creamy, no streaks
5-6 min set time


How is liquid/powder ZOE and calcium hydroxide cement mixed?

2 spoons power : 3 drops liquid
Add in powder small amount at time till right consistency
Clean spatula, put powder on spatula and roll towards you until sausage shaped

1-1:30min mix time
4-5 min set time


How is alginate mixed?

Powder fluffed - mix ingredients, remove clumps
Scoop in bowl, add room temp water
Mix for 30s, spread against side to remove air bubbles and thoroughly mix
1-2 min set time depending on temp - warm water sets faster


What 3 forms are most dental materials in unset?

1. Power and liquid
2. 2 paste
3. 1 paste


What 2 forms do most dental materials cure to?

1. Rigid/stiff
2. Rubbery, elastic material


Describe dis/advantages of powder/liquid materials

Depends on what using material for
Alginate is v easy, cements more difficult to incorporate all powder into liquid in short time
Need to avoid incorporating air into material


What are the dis/advantages of 2 paste materials?

Difficult to mix to give homogenous resulting mass
Need to avoid incorporating air while hand mixing


What are the dis/advantages of 1 paste materials?

Can be difficult to pack into cavity if v viscous


What are the dis/advantages of delivery gun/pentamix materials?

Easy to mix
Tips cannot be reused
Could two air while filling impression tray


What are the 3 methods of setting dental materials?

1. Heat
2. Root temp.
3. Light cure unit


Compare the physico-mechanical properties of the 3 cure types of materials

1. Heat: optimum physico-mechanical properties (dentures) but not feasible for chairside
2. RT: compromised compared to heat set - denture repair material
3. Light: physico-mechanical properties between RT and heat set - composite


What are the 5 ideal properties of dental materials?

1. Biocompatible
2. Mechanically stable
3. Chemically resistant
4. Dimensionally stable
5. Minimal thermal and electrical conductivity


What are the 11 generic groups of dental materials?

1. Impression
2. Acrylics
3. Soft liners and tissue conditioners
4. Cements
5. Resin composites
6. Bonding agent
7. Casting materials
8. Investment and die materials
9. Waxes
10. Ceramics
11. Dental alloys/amalgam


What 5 factors influence selection of material?

1. Patient history
2. Age of patient/dentition
3. Patient compliance
4. Location of tooth
5. Depth of cavity


Compare the important factors for ant. and post. restorations

Ant: colour match, natural looking in all lighting conditions, compressive strength not necessity

Post: high compressive strength, aesthetics not necessity


If a carious cavity extends to the pulp what is required when restoring?

Cavity liner to act as thermal insulator so tooth not sensitive to heat changes


What is Grassman's law?

Three parameters of colour:
1. Dominant wavelength (hue)
2. Excitation purity: saturation of colour; intensity 0-1
3. Luminous reflectance: brightness (100) or darkness (0)


Why is colour important in DMs?

Wavelength material reflects may change w/ age thus colour may change


What is the importance of surface finish of a restoration?

When light reflects off a solid some reflects from surface and some reflects from body of solid
Surface reflection dilutes colour: rough surface is much lighter than smooth surface of same material thus colour of restoration could become much lighter w/ wear


What are metameric colours?

Colours that appear the same under 1 light source but different under another


What is the significance of metanerism in dentistry?

Need to match restoration colour to natural colour in light corresponding to that of use


What is fluorescence?

Phenomenon observed when material absorbs colour of one wavelength and emits colour of another wavelength


Why is fluorescence important in DMs?

Teeth emit fluorescent light (look whiter under fluorescent light) so materials need to look natural
Some porcelains contain fluorescing agents to mimic natural appearance


Define opacity, translucency, transparency

Opacity: selective absorbance of light
Transparency: no interaction w/ light, complete transmission
Translucency: mixture of absorption, refraction, transmission


What is the refractive index?

Ratio of velocity of light in a vacuum to velocity in selected medium
A large difference = opaque; identical = transparent