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Flashcards in Oral Cavity Deck (310)
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What is Waldeyer's ring?

Incomplete ring of lymphoid tissue in naso-oropharynx
Body's first line of defence against microbes


What are the main structures of Waldeyer's ring?

Tonsils: lingual, pharyngeal, tubal, palatine
Lymphatic tissue: throughout mucosal lining of pharynx


What are the 6 functions of the oral cavity?

1. Ingestion of food and liquid
2. Mastication
3. Ventilation
4. Immunological
5. Taste
6. Speech


What are the 5 features of the maxillary vestibule?

1. Vestibule
2. Sup. labial frenulum
3. Labial mucosa
4. Alveolar mucosa
5. Attached gingiva


What are the 2 features of the mandibular vestibule?

1. Vestibule
2. Inf. labial frenulum


What are the 2 structures of the palate?

1. Rugae - identify bodies
2. Palatine raphe - feature from development of palate (fusion of plates)


What are the 4 papillae on the tongue?

1. Circumvallate - ~12 pointing towards oropharynx
2. Filiform - sensitivity to vits.
3. Fungiform - mushroom shape, tastebuds
4. Foliate - irritated by teeth


What are the 2 structures of the floor of the mouth?

1. Lingual frenulum
2. Sublingual papillae/folds


What are oral ulcers?

Break in surface continuity of mucosa with resulting loss of surface epithelium and exposure of underlying CT


Define primary and secondary ulceration

Primary: began as an ulcer
Secondary: began as a blister or vesicle before breaking down


What is RAS?

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis - recurrent ulcers with no obv. cause


What are the 3 types of RAS? Describe the main differences

1. Minor: <5mm, round, shallow; erythematous halo, yellow floor
2. Major: >1cm, deep, irregular; erythematous halo, yellow floor, scars
3. Herpetiform: 1-2mm; >20 present, may coalesce form irregular ulcers, erythematous background


What are the 9 main functions of saliva?

1. Diagnostic
2. Preventative
3. Protection
4. Buffering
5. Digestion
6. Antimicrobial
7. Maintenance of tooth integrity
8. Taste
9. Retention of denture


What are the 5 main components of saliva?

1. Water
2. Mucus
3. Electrolytes
4. Enzymes
5. Antimicrobials


What are some inorganic components of saliva?

Na, Cl, K, PO4, HCO3, F, Ca


What is the relationship between flow rate and conc. of saliva components?

Flow rate inc., inc. conc.


Apart from proteins name 8 other organic components of saliva

1. Carbs
2. Blood group substances
3. Lipids
4. AAs
5. Urea
6. Ammonia
7. Glucose
8. Cortisol


What are the 9 functions of proteins in salvia?

1. Buffering
2. Digestion
3. Mineralisation
4. Antiviral
5. Antifungal
6. Antibacterial
7. Tissue maintenance
8. Lubrication
9. Tissue coating


What are the 2 main structures found in salivary glands?

1. Acini: secrete saliva; mucous, serous, myoepithelial
2. Ducts: transport and alter saliva; intercalated, striated, secretory


What is resting secretion?

Saliva that is constantly produced, day and night


Why is resting secretion important?

Saliva breaks down self so more is required to be produced


What is the function of resting secretion?

Keep mouth and oropharynx moist, lubricated and protected


What 5 receptors can stimulate saliva?

1. Olfactory - smell, taste
2. Mechanoceptors - chewing
3. Gustatory - start digestion
4. Nociceptor - lick wounds
5. Higher centres - possibly, control flow


What is whole mouth saliva?

Mixed saliva secretions from all glands
Composition and volume can vary greatly depending on type and length of stimuli


What are the 3 major salivary glands?

1. Parotid
2. Submandibular
3. Sublingual


Describe the secretions from the 3 major salivary glands

Parotid: serous, high amylase, low Ca
Submandibular: mixed, high Ca
Sublingual: more mucous, high mucins


Describe the secretions from the minor salivary glands

Highly mucous


Describe the innervation of the salivary glands

PSNS: H2O release, vasodilation; watery and electrolyte rich
SNS: exocytosis; inc. protein synthesis, thick(?)


What are the 4 functions of mucin?

1. Tissue coating
2. Lubrication
3. Bacterial aggregation
4. Bacterial adhesion


What are the 4 main causes of xerostomia?

1. Disease: autoimmune, Sjorgens
2. Therapy: chemotherapy, H&N radiotherapy
3. Medication: antidepressants, antihypertensive
4. Disorder: HIV, psychogenic