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What are the 6 steps a large business takes in recruiting?

- Job analysis
- job description
- person specification
- job advert
- shortlisting
- interview


(1/6): What is a job analysis?

- A job analysis is the process which identifies and determines in detail the particular duties and requirements of the job, and also what the position requires in terms of aptitudes, knowledge and skills


(2/6): What is a job description?

- eery job should have some form of job description. this explains the tasks involved in the job, the job title, responsibilities attached to the job, place of work, and employment conditions (holidays, salary etc). job descriptions need to be updated regularly, as jobs often evolve, as those doing the job become more experienced and skilled.


(3/6): What is a person specification?

- this describes the skills, knowledge and experience needed by an individual to complete the job. it will detail educational requirements, experience and skills needed, perhaps physical attributes, and important aspects of personality required.


(4/6): What is a shortlisting?

- once the previous steps have been completed, the business can look for the right candidate.


What is internal recruitment?

- this methods involves finding someone already employed by an organisation to fill a vacancy
- may be advertised on a notice board, published on an intranet.
- ADV: cost of recruitment is reduced, no need for external advertisements, the applicants will already know how the business works, candidates are less likely to settle into the job easier, may increase motivation in the workforce. improves employee morale.
- DIS: limited range of applicants, potential to find new talent is reduced. less likelihood of new ideas. as one person is promoted, it will leave a vacancy. stale ideas.


What is external recruitment?

- external recruitment is when a business hires a person from outside the business.
- for skilled or professional workers, it may be appropriate to use recruitment agencies that are specialised in finding specific workers for specific tasks. job centres can be used for administrative and unskilled workers.
- ADV: provides new ideas/fresh perspectives, allows rapid growth, increases diversity, bigger talent pool. can reduce training costs
- DIS: search takes longer and costs more, an outsider takes time to familiarise themselves with the business, can hurt employees morale and loyalty, may have to pay more for the job.


What is a staff appraisal?

- process of assessing effectiveness of an employee
- feedback is given regarding performance
- evaluates usefulness of employee
- An appraisal either happens every six months, or annually, a staff member has a meeting with its line manager and analyses their performance against targets, number of complaints, performance and management of budget for example.
- furthermore training, career prospects and performance are discussed and examined.


What are the benefits of staff appraisal?

- motivates workers
- improves performance
- allows achievable targets
- identifies training needs
- identifies potential
- enables/identifies achievable bonuses to be earned
- increases productivity because of targets


What are the criticisms of staff appraisal?

- can cause tension in the workplace (in relation to allocation of bonuses
- puts workers under tremendous pressure to keep improving performance
- places too much power in the hands of line managers who may be ill-equipped to use the system effectively, or abuse the power the system gives them.


How can self assessment help an employee?

- self assessment helps the employee to:
- critically reflect upon their own performance
- record their progress
- suggest targets for the furture


how can employees be trained?

- on the job training
- apprenticeships
- off the job
- mentor-ing
- graduate training


What are the benefits of on the job training?

- no disruption to the workplace through worker absence
- low cost
- training is directly relevant to the job


what are the costs of on the job training?

- management time is spent planning the training
- management or supervisor time is spent doing the training
- potential reduction in the quality of output as trainees complete work


What are the benefits of off the job training?

- a wider range of skills are gathered
- input of new ideas into the workplace
- employees gain worthwhile qualifications


What are the costs of off the job training?

- lost production and disruption to workplace when employees are absent
- actual costs of courses
- workers may seek to use their qualifications to seek better employment


Why do businesses train employees? (benefits?)

- all businesses need to have workers with skills to ensure that production or provision of service is of the best quality possible
- training workers creates flexibility - workers are now able to adapt to change more easily and contribute more to the business
- training motivates, thereby allowing workers to reach their potential and contribute fully to the business
- job enrichment and job enlargement can be implemented if workers are given the right training
- training can also be helpful when recruiting as potential employees might be attracted by the opportunities offered.
- efficiency
- service improved
- may reduce costs in the long run, less accidents etc
- lower labour turnover, people stay with business, lower recruitment costs.


What is retraining?

- training is an ongoing process. employees often need to be retrained to cope with the changing working environment. changes in the working environment can be due to:
new health and safety requirements
- new working practices
- new technology
- new government training


What are apprenticeships?

- Apprenticeships are formal agreements between an employer and a young employee that commits the employer to facilitate training and workplace experience for the employee
- This will lead to a recognised qualification that is accepted throughout the relevant industry.
- all apprentices are paid a wage which as dependent on age.


How does views of management determine internal organisational structure?

- The type of manager that operates within the business will have a large impact on the internal structure of the business.
- managers with a democratic leadership style will encourage workers to take responsibility; whilst managers with an autocratic leadership style will prefer a recognisable hierarchical structure.


How do communication systems determine internal organisational structure?

- where communication is controlled and closely monitored, the business structure is likely to contain many layers with narrow spans of control and definite paths of responsibility.
- however, where more open and free communication is encouraged, the business structure is likely to be less hierarchical and more flexible


How does the industry determine internal organisational structure?

- retailing encourages a hierarchical structure, with clear cut responsibilities and chains of command.
- in other industries such as software development, the boundaries of responsibility are less clear and the chains of command tend to be much more shorter.


How do the traditions of a business determine internal organisational structure?

- the standard pyramid shaped hierarchical structure is one that many businesses develop as they grow, often businesses that have been owned by the government for many years have a traditional structure
- when privatised these businesses find many difficulties in changing this hierarchical structure. Other businesses, often in the 'new economy', work towards achieving a less rigid organisational structure, consisting of fewer layers of hierarchy.


How do the skills of the workforce determine internal organisational structure?

- the more highly skilled the workforce, the more likely they are to need less supervision. This results in a flatter, more open structure where involvement in the decision making process is encouraged at all levels.


What are layers of hierarchy?

- This is the management structure of an organisation and indicates who is responsible to whom.
- for example, for a supermarket store, there is a chain of command all the way from the shop manager down to the floor staff.


What are chains of command?

- These are the path along which communication takes place and instructions or order are passed down. Using the police force as an example, the chief constable may make a decision to stamp out begging, this instruction is passed down through the layers of authority and decisions will be made as to what methods will be used to carry out the policy.


What are levels of responsibility?

- Each layer of the hierarchy will have its own level of responsibility. the amount of responsibility and the freedom to make decisions based on this responsibility will depend on the amount of control that has been delegated from above.
- the amount of delegated control will depend on business structure, style of management and the type of business involved.


What are spans of control?

- The span of control tells us how many workers are directly responsible to a manager or supervisor. When there has been a high level of delegation the span of control is often wide -- -- -- -- --
- Workers are trusted to achieve quality and complete their tasks without constant supervision or monitoring. a narrower span of control operates in strictly hierarchical organisations where control is tight and centralised.


What is the traditional hierarchical structure?

- The traditional hierarchical structure is pyramid shaped. - there are many layers to it, and the span of control is narrow at the top.


What are the advantages of the traditional hierarchy structure?

- control is at the centre, and senior management fully understand exactly who does what and what their responsibilities are
- paths of communication and responsibility are clearly defined
- departments understand their position in relation to other departments within the organisation
- each worker knows how they fit into the organisational structure.


What are the disadvantages of the traditional hierarchy structure?

- senior management are distanced from those who implement decisions. what senior managers perceive as being the case may, in reality be very different.
- vertical communication is difficult, with information that is received by management distorted by the layers it ust pass through. very long chains of communications could even mean that instructions are out of date by the time they are received.
- communication between different departments is hampered by the lack of direct contact between departments.


What are the advantages of a flatter organisational structure?

- increased motivation as a result of the delegation of authority
- decisions are made more quickly by those nearest the 'ground'
- communication is quicker and suffers less distortion
- empowerment of workers


What are the disadvantages of a flatter organisational structure?

- loss of control of the workforce
- different departments may not be working to the same objectives.


What is a matrix structure?

- Matrix structures attempt to organise the management of different tasks in a way that cuts across traditional departmental boundaries. This structure enables people with particular specialist skills to work together in project teams.
- Each individual team will have their own responsibility for certain aspects of the project but they will be working together to achieve a specific objective.


What are the benefits of Matrix structures?

- it allows individuals with specific skills to contribute to a number of different projects
- it breaks down barriers to communication and ensures that projects can be better coordinated
- it helps ideas and innovation spread throughout the business
- there is more efficient use of human resources. the structure can improve flexibility and the motivation of employees.


What are the disadvantages of Matrix structures?

- Defining what each employee's main responsibilities are is difficult - being answerable to two bosses may put a lot of strain on individuals. placing too great a burden on individuals may slow down decision making
- project management using matrix structure can be expensive because extra support systems, such as ICT and office staff, may be required
- coordinating a team drawn from a number of different departments may be difficult as the culture and methods of operation in each department may be very difficult.


What is delayering and what are its benefits and drawbacks?

- Delayering involves removing one or more layers of middle managers
- ADV: cuts the costs of paying many managers, improves communications, empowers the remaining workers if they are given extra responsibilities
- DIS: results in a loss of experienced skilled managers, be costly initially in terms of redundancy payments and training.


What is centralisation?

- the majority of decisions are taken by senior managers and then passed down the organisational hierarchy.


What are the benefits and drawbacks of centralisation?

ADV: - firms can benefit from economies of scale
- ensures the activities throughout the business fir with the organisation's objectives
- quick decisions can be made by managers who are skilled at decision making
DIS: - local differences may not be taken into account
- employees cannot use their knowledge of working at the coalface
- workers may become demotivated


What is decentralisation?

- where authority is delegated down the chain of command, thus reducing the speed of decision making


What are the benefits and drawbacks of decentralisation?

- ADV: staff are empowered to make decisions which may be motivating
- local conditions can be considered when making decisions
- the experience of all workers is utilised
DIS: - a consistent corporate message may not be delivered throughout the firm
- fewer chances of benefiting from economies of scale
- workers down the hierarchy may be less skilled at decision making


How do you work out the absenteeism rate?

- absenteeism is the habitual pattern of absence in the workforce.
- FORMULA: total number of staff absence days over a year DIVIDED total number of working days that should have been worked X 100


What is labour turnover and how do you work it out?

- This is a measure of the rate at which employees are leaving an organisation
- FORMULA: number of staff leaving DI|VIDED average number of staff employed X 100


What is labour productivity and how is it worked out?

- Productivity is a measurement of the efficiency with which a business turns production inputs into output.
- FORMULA: total output per period of time DIVIDED average number of employees per period of time


What is Workforce planning?

- Process of determining the labour needs of the business now and in the future, and then devising a plan to achieve this.


What are the benefits of workforce planning?

- Helps business to manage its costs
- important to identify skills needed for the future
- where will these workers be needed
- important if business needs to make redundancies.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of delayering?

BENE: - cuts costs of paying many managers
- improves communication
- empowers the remaining workers with extra responsibilities
DISA: - results in a loss of experienced, skilled managers
- costs initially for redundancy payments
- managers/workers become fearful of their own jobs, and therefore demoralised
- remaining staff may need training
- some staff may be overburdened and less efficient