How many ounces are in a standard “shot” of liquor?
1.5 oz. or 45 ml
(This applies to a “shot” in the United States. In some countries a shot is 1 oz, ex. Australia)
How much beer and wine contain as much alcohol as a 1.5-oz. “shot” of liquor?
- 12-oz. beer
- 6-oz. glass of wine
(Based on standard 40% alcohol hard liquor)
Why was the concept of proof created?
18th Century British sailors were paid partially in rum, which had to be “proved”.
The rum was combined with gunpowder and lit. If it burned, the rum was “proved”; otherwise, the rum was watered down too much and was “below proof”.
How do you calculate proof?
Proof is double the alcohol-by-volume, so if a liquid is 50% alcohol, it would be 100 proof.
What are the 3 most popular beverages in the world?
Water, tea, and beer
What is the difference between a lowball and a highball?
Lowball drinks are served in a short glass and highball drinks are served in a tall glass. They should each contain the same amount of alcohol, but lowballs have less mixer, so the drink should be stronger.
What is the fermented ingredient in wine?
What is the fermented ingredient in sake?
Note: Sake is commonly called “rice wine”
What is the fermented ingredient in beer?
Where did rum originate?
Either in ancient India or China
What is the fermented ingredient in rum?
Sugar cane byproducts:
- sugar cane juices
What aromas should you look for when nosing a rum?
What can you determine from the appearance of a rum?
The longer a rum ages, the darker it will be
What flavors should you look for in rum?
- brown sugar
What popular drinks use rum?
- Rum and Coke
- Rum Runner
- Piña Colada
- Tom and Jerry
- Mai Tai
What is the fermented ingredient in gin?
Neutral grain spirits flavored with juniper
What aromas should you look for when nosing gin?
What is the proper way to taste gin?
- Sip and let roll around the mouth before swallowing
- Pay attention to the warmth of the alcohol (you will be able to notice an array of flavors from the botanicals)
- Let the gin rest on your palate while exhaling through your nose (the result of the spirit should be smooth and creamy on the tongue with a long, soft taste)
- Swallow and pay close attention to the aftertaste
Should gin be completely clear when held up to the light?
If made from natural ingredients, gin need not be completely clear
What popular drinks use gin?
- Gin Martini
- Gin and Juice
- Gin and Tonic
What is the fermented ingredient in whiskey?
Dependent on the variety, but can include:
- malted barley
- malted rye
- maize (corn)
Scotch is a variety of what type of liquor?
What was colonial America’s largest and most prosperous industry?
The manufacture of rum
The first rum distillaries were in Staten Island, New York and Boston, Massachusetts
What is the fermented ingredient in vodka?
- grain (usually rye or wheat)
- potatoes, or
- sugar beet molasses
When and where was vodka invented?
14th century Russia
What should vodka look like?
A fine vodka has a thick and creamy texture when frozen
What should you look for in the nose of a vodka?
- Good vodka: creamy, sweet, or grainy fragrance
- Bad vodka: medicinal or aggressive with a harsh odor of ethyl spirits
What popular drinks use vodka?
- White Russian
- Long Island Iced Tea
- Lemon Drop
What was North America’s first indigenous distilled spirit?
When the Conquistadors ran out of their own brandy, they began distilling the Aztecs’ agave drink
What color should tequila be?
Clear, pale yellow, golden, or golden brown
(Darker color indicates either extensive aging or the use of caramel coloring)
What is the fermented ingredient in tequila?
Blue agave (not cacti)
What should you look for in the nose of a tequila?
Note: “Agave intensity” is the term used to describe the amount of agave aroma in the tequila.
What kind of taste should you look for in a tequila?
A long finish and a nicely complex aftertaste
Where did scotch likely originate?
Among ancient Celts
They produced a drink, known as uisge beatha (“water of life”), which evolved into Scotch whiskey
What is the proper way to nose scotch?
- Raise the glass of scotch slowly up to your nose until you begin to get a rich but not overpowering sense of the aroma
- A few drops of water will release more components of the whiskey’s smell
Into which four distinct categories are Scotch whiskeys divided?
- Single malt
- Vatted malt (also called “pure malt”)
- Blended grain
- Single grain
What should you look for in the appearance of scotch?
Its darkness is indicative of its age and the type of wood cask it was stored in
Hold the scotch up against a white background and examine the color and clarity
The richest scotches (and whiskeys in general) have the most prominent legs
What flavors should you look for in a Scotch?
What is distinctive about scotch compared to other whiskeys?
According to Scottish regulations, it must be distilled and aged for at least three years and one day
Bourbon is a variety of what type of liquor?
What is distinctive about bourbon compared to other types of whiskey?
Must have a 51% corn mixture in its fermented grains
How are sour mash whiskeys made?
Different kinds of grains are mashed together and fermented