Hard Liquor and Spirit Basics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hard Liquor and Spirit Basics Deck (42)
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1
Q

How many ounces are in a standard “shot” of liquor?

A

1.5 oz. or 45 ml

(This applies to a “shot” in the United States. In some countries a shot is 1 oz, ex. Australia)

2
Q

How much beer and wine contain as much alcohol as a 1.5-oz. “shot” of liquor?

A
  • 12-oz. beer
  • 6-oz. glass of wine

(Based on standard 40% alcohol hard liquor)

3
Q

Why was the concept of proof created?

A

18th Century British sailors were paid partially in rum, which had to be “proved”.

The rum was combined with gunpowder and lit. If it burned, the rum was “proved”; otherwise, the rum was watered down too much and was “below proof”.

4
Q

How do you calculate proof?

A

Proof is double the alcohol-by-volume, so if a liquid is 50% alcohol, it would be 100 proof.

5
Q

What are the 3 most popular beverages in the world?

A

Water, tea, and beer

6
Q

What is the difference between a lowball and a highball?

A

Lowball drinks are served in a short glass and highball drinks are served in a tall glass. They should each contain the same amount of alcohol, but lowballs have less mixer, so the drink should be stronger.

7
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in wine?

A

Grapes

8
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in sake?

A

Rice

Note: Sake is commonly called “rice wine”

9
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in beer?

A

Malted barley

10
Q

Where did rum originate?

A

Either in ancient India or China

11
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in rum?

A

Sugar cane byproducts:

  • molasses
  • sugar cane juices
12
Q

What aromas should you look for when nosing a rum?

A
  • vanilla
  • caramel
  • butterscotch
  • tobacco
  • leather
13
Q

What can you determine from the appearance of a rum?

A

Its age

The longer a rum ages, the darker it will be

14
Q

What flavors should you look for in rum?

A
  • caramel
  • brown sugar
  • tobacco
  • molasses
  • leather
15
Q

What popular drinks use rum?

A
  • Rum and Coke
  • Rum Runner
  • Piña Colada
  • Tom and Jerry
  • Mai Tai
  • Zombie
16
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in gin?

A

Neutral grain spirits flavored with juniper

17
Q

What aromas should you look for when nosing gin?

A
  • citrus
  • fruit
  • floral
  • earth
  • spice
  • wood
18
Q

What is the proper way to taste gin?

A
  1. Sip and let roll around the mouth before swallowing
  2. Pay attention to the warmth of the alcohol (you will be able to notice an array of flavors from the botanicals)
  3. Let the gin rest on your palate while exhaling through your nose (the result of the spirit should be smooth and creamy on the tongue with a long, soft taste)
  4. Swallow and pay close attention to the aftertaste
19
Q

Should gin be completely clear when held up to the light?

A

If made from natural ingredients, gin need not be completely clear

20
Q

What popular drinks use gin?

A
  • Gin Martini
  • Gin and Juice
  • Gin and Tonic
21
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in whiskey?

A

Dependent on the variety, but can include:

  • barley
  • malted barley
  • rye
  • malted rye
  • wheat
  • maize (corn)
22
Q

Scotch is a variety of what type of liquor?

A

Whiskey

23
Q

What was colonial America’s largest and most prosperous industry?

A

The manufacture of rum

The first rum distillaries were in Staten Island, New York and Boston, Massachusetts

24
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in vodka?

A
  • grain (usually rye or wheat)
  • potatoes, or
  • sugar beet molasses
25
Q

When and where was vodka invented?

A

14th century Russia

26
Q

What should vodka look like?

A

A fine vodka has a thick and creamy texture when frozen

27
Q

What should you look for in the nose of a vodka?

A
  • Good vodka: creamy, sweet, or grainy fragrance
  • Bad vodka: medicinal or aggressive with a harsh odor of ethyl spirits
28
Q

What popular drinks use vodka?

A
  • Kamikaze
  • White Russian
  • Long Island Iced Tea
  • Lemon Drop
29
Q

What was North America’s first indigenous distilled spirit?

A

Tequila

When the Conquistadors ran out of their own brandy, they began distilling the Aztecs’ agave drink

30
Q

What color should tequila be?

A

Clear, pale yellow, golden, or golden brown

(Darker color indicates either extensive aging or the use of caramel coloring)

31
Q

What is the fermented ingredient in tequila?

A

Blue agave (not cacti)

32
Q

What should you look for in the nose of a tequila?

A
  • agave
  • soil
  • oak
  • fruit
  • smoke

Note: “Agave intensity” is the term used to describe the amount of agave aroma in the tequila.

33
Q

What kind of taste should you look for in a tequila?

A

A long finish and a nicely complex aftertaste

34
Q

Where did scotch likely originate?

A

Among ancient Celts

They produced a drink, known as uisge beatha (“water of life”), which evolved into Scotch whiskey

35
Q

What is the proper way to nose scotch?

A
  • Raise the glass of scotch slowly up to your nose until you begin to get a rich but not overpowering sense of the aroma
  • A few drops of water will release more components of the whiskey’s smell
36
Q

Into which four distinct categories are Scotch whiskeys divided?

A
  1. Single malt
  2. Vatted malt (also called “pure malt”)
  3. Blended grain
  4. Single grain
37
Q

What should you look for in the appearance of scotch?

A

Its darkness is indicative of its age and the type of wood cask it was stored in

Hold the scotch up against a white background and examine the color and clarity
The richest scotches (and whiskeys in general) have the most prominent legs

38
Q

What flavors should you look for in a Scotch?

A
  • iodine
  • brine
  • seaweed
  • florals
39
Q

What is distinctive about scotch compared to other whiskeys?

A

According to Scottish regulations, it must be distilled and aged for at least three years and one day

40
Q

Bourbon is a variety of what type of liquor?

A

Whiskey

41
Q

What is distinctive about bourbon compared to other types of whiskey?

A

Must have a 51% corn mixture in its fermented grains

42
Q

How are sour mash whiskeys made?

A

Different kinds of grains are mashed together and fermented