Flashcards in HD: PBL 5 (Child Development and Menopause) Deck (27):
What is required for normal language development?
Normal brain development, normal hearing and appropriate language stimulation
What are developmental milestones?
Skills that children achieve as they develop which can be tested/measured
What are the Denver sub-divisions of development?
Gross motor, fine motor, language and personal social
How is the Denver Developmental Screening Test used with a child that presents with a possible developmental delay?
To assess all areas of development to see if they have a general learning disability or a specific problem affecting only one area of development
What developmental milestones should be reached at 6 weeks?
Gross Motor - lifts head when prone
Fine Motor - palmar grasp
Language - cooing
Personal/Social - social smiles
What developmental milestones should be reached at 6-8 months?
Gross Motor - sits
Fine Motor - visually guided reaching
Language - babbling
Personal/Social - stranger awareness
What developmental milestones should be reached at 10-15 months?
Gross Motor - walks
Fine Motor - pincer grasp
Language - first words
Personal/Social - object permanence
What developmental milestones should be reached at 18 months- 2 years?
Gross Motor - runs (trying stairs)
Fine Motor - tower of 3 bricks
Language - 2/3 word utterances
Personal/Social - play with toys
What developmental milestones should be reached at 3 years?
Gross Motor - climbing stairs (alternate feet)
Fine Motor - tower of 9 bricks and drawing circle
Language - asking questions,
Personal/Social - play with other children
What is the role of Children's Centres?
Offer a range of facilities for young children; those with problems can be referred to an appropriate specialist e.g. SALT, physiotherapist or community paediatrician as these centres work to offer a series of developmental reviews by GPs and health visitors
What is a vaccine?
Provides passive immunity, whereby antibodies are administered but the immune system remains unchanged for long-term adaptation
What is an immunisation?
Exposure to an attenuated pathogen which causes the development of immune cells to this antigen to provide life-long immunity to infection
At what age does menopause usually occur?
What is classed as early menopause?
What is classed as premature menopause?
Before 40 years of age
What are the short-term symptoms of the menopause?
Changes in menstrual cycle, hot flushes/night sweats, palpitations, headaches, depression, memory loss, panic, urinary frequency, urge/stress incontinence, vaginal dryness, brittle nails and joint/muscle pains
What are the long-term symptoms of menopause?
Hyperlipidaemia (IHD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, inelastic skin, easy bruising, prolapse, supressed libido, Alzheimers
Why does the menopause increase the risk of osteoporosis?
Greater amount of bone resorption (degeneration) in comparison to bone deposition leading to reduced overall bone mass due to the lack of inhibitory action of bone resorption provided by oestrogen
What is Dowager's hump?
Forward curvature of the spine resulting in a stoop, typically in women with osteoporosis and is caused by the collapse of the front edges of the thoracic vertebra
What treatments are available to treat the symptoms of menopause?
Hormone replacement therapy, biphosphates and calcitonin, selective oestrogen receptor modulators and clonidine and venlaflaxine
Describe hormone replacement therapy
Oestrogen and progesterone prescribed (if no uterus present only oestrogen) via tablets, patches, gels etc.
What are the common side effects of hormone replacement therapy?
Heavy cyclical or irregular bleeding, bloating, fluid retention, weight gain, mastalgia (breast pain), headaches, muscle cramps, abdominal pain and depression
What are serious potential complications of HRT?
Increases the risk of breast cancer after 5 years of use, can have thrombo-embolic events such as DVT or PE as a result of treatment
How may biphosphates and calcitonin work to manage menopause?
Decrease osteoclast activity to reduce bone resorption --> reduced likelihood of osteoporosis
How may clonidine and venlaflaxine be used to treat the symptoms of menopause?
Reduce the vasomotor symptoms e.g. hot flushes
When is a women considered to have reached the menopause?
After a year without menstruation (LMP 12 months ago)