HD: PBL 5 (Child Development and Menopause) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HD: PBL 5 (Child Development and Menopause) Deck (27)
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What is required for normal language development?

Normal brain development, normal hearing and appropriate language stimulation


What are developmental milestones?

Skills that children achieve as they develop which can be tested/measured


What are the Denver sub-divisions of development?

Gross motor, fine motor, language and personal social


How is the Denver Developmental Screening Test used with a child that presents with a possible developmental delay?

To assess all areas of development to see if they have a general learning disability or a specific problem affecting only one area of development


What developmental milestones should be reached at 6 weeks?

Gross Motor - lifts head when prone
Fine Motor - palmar grasp
Language - cooing
Personal/Social - social smiles


What developmental milestones should be reached at 6-8 months?

Gross Motor - sits
Fine Motor - visually guided reaching
Language - babbling
Personal/Social - stranger awareness


What developmental milestones should be reached at 10-15 months?

Gross Motor - walks
Fine Motor - pincer grasp
Language - first words
Personal/Social - object permanence


What developmental milestones should be reached at 18 months- 2 years?

Gross Motor - runs (trying stairs)
Fine Motor - tower of 3 bricks
Language - 2/3 word utterances
Personal/Social - play with toys


What developmental milestones should be reached at 3 years?

Gross Motor - climbing stairs (alternate feet)
Fine Motor - tower of 9 bricks and drawing circle
Language - asking questions,
Personal/Social - play with other children


What is the role of Children's Centres?

Offer a range of facilities for young children; those with problems can be referred to an appropriate specialist e.g. SALT, physiotherapist or community paediatrician as these centres work to offer a series of developmental reviews by GPs and health visitors


What is a vaccine?

Provides passive immunity, whereby antibodies are administered but the immune system remains unchanged for long-term adaptation


What is an immunisation?

Exposure to an attenuated pathogen which causes the development of immune cells to this antigen to provide life-long immunity to infection


At what age does menopause usually occur?

52 years


What is classed as early menopause?

40-45 years


What is classed as premature menopause?

Before 40 years of age


What are the short-term symptoms of the menopause?

Changes in menstrual cycle, hot flushes/night sweats, palpitations, headaches, depression, memory loss, panic, urinary frequency, urge/stress incontinence, vaginal dryness, brittle nails and joint/muscle pains


What are the long-term symptoms of menopause?

Hyperlipidaemia (IHD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, inelastic skin, easy bruising, prolapse, supressed libido, Alzheimers


Why does the menopause increase the risk of osteoporosis?

Greater amount of bone resorption (degeneration) in comparison to bone deposition leading to reduced overall bone mass due to the lack of inhibitory action of bone resorption provided by oestrogen


What is Dowager's hump?

Forward curvature of the spine resulting in a stoop, typically in women with osteoporosis and is caused by the collapse of the front edges of the thoracic vertebra


What treatments are available to treat the symptoms of menopause?

Hormone replacement therapy, biphosphates and calcitonin, selective oestrogen receptor modulators and clonidine and venlaflaxine


Describe hormone replacement therapy

Oestrogen and progesterone prescribed (if no uterus present only oestrogen) via tablets, patches, gels etc.


What are the common side effects of hormone replacement therapy?

Heavy cyclical or irregular bleeding, bloating, fluid retention, weight gain, mastalgia (breast pain), headaches, muscle cramps, abdominal pain and depression


What are serious potential complications of HRT?

Increases the risk of breast cancer after 5 years of use, can have thrombo-embolic events such as DVT or PE as a result of treatment


How may biphosphates and calcitonin work to manage menopause?

Decrease osteoclast activity to reduce bone resorption --> reduced likelihood of osteoporosis


How may clonidine and venlaflaxine be used to treat the symptoms of menopause?

Reduce the vasomotor symptoms e.g. hot flushes


When is a women considered to have reached the menopause?

After a year without menstruation (LMP 12 months ago)


What are infants routinely vaccinated against?

Diphtheria, polio, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), haemophilus influenza type B, pneumococcal, MenB, rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotaverius, MenC, measles, mumps, rubella