Head and Neck Anatomy Week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck Anatomy Week 1 Deck (112):
1

Where is the deep cervical fascia?

It surrounds the neck and sends septa internally to delineate compartments

2

Would wounds to the scalp bleed profusely or sparingly and why?

Profusely - due to the connective tissue in the 2nd layer which prevents vasoconstriction

3

What is the 3rd layer of the scalp?

Aponeurosis of the occipitofrontalis muscle

4

What is the clinical significance of the emissary veins?

These valveless veins transverse the diploe and can spread infection intracranially

5

How do sympathetic fibres reach those regions supplied by cranial nerves?

Postganglionic fibres from the sympathetic chain form a plexus and hitch a ride with blood vessels

6

What are the branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Opthalmic (V1)
Maxillary (V2)
Mandibular (V3)

7

Do the branches of the trigeminal nerve carry sensory fibres, motor fibres or both?

V1 - Sensory
V2 - Sensory
V3 - Sensory + Motor

8

What fibres does the facial nerve contain?

Motor, sensory (special senses) and parasympathetic fibres

9

What structures pass through the parotid gland?

External Carotid branches, retromandibular vein, facial nerve and facial artery

10

What are the contents of the carotid sheath?

Carotid arteries, internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve

11

Where does the right common carotid arise from?

Brachiocephalic artery

12

Where does the left common carotid arise from?

Directly from the aortic arch

13

What does the ECA supply?

Neck, face and scalp

14

What does the ICA supply?

Brain

15

What do C1-5 form?

The cervical plexus

16

What are the three parts of the skull?

Neuro-cranium, facial skull (viscera-cranium) and mandible

17

Which part of the skull bone houses the red marrow?

Diploe (spongy bone)

18

What are the main sutures of the skull?

Sagittal, coronal and lambdoid

19

Between which bones does the sagittal suture lie?

The two parietal bones

20

Between which bones does the coronal suture lie?

Between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones

21

Between which bones does the lambdoid suture lie?

Between the occipital bone and the parietal bones

22

Which bone is the occipital protuberance a part of?

Occipital bone

23

Which bone is the mastoid process a part of?

Temporal bone

24

Which bones is the zygomatic process a part of?

Temporal and zygomatic

25

What bone is the styloid process a part of?

Temporal bone

26

What bone are the occipital condyles a part of?

Occipital bone

27

What is the largest foramen in the posterior cranial fossa?

Foramen magnum

28

Name two structures that pass through foramen magnum?

The medulla (where it becomes the spinal cord) and the right and left vertebral arteries

29

What bone is the superior nuchal line a part of?

Occipital bone

30

What type of joint is present in the zygomatic arch?

Suture

31

What are the five layers of the scalp?

S-skin
C-connective tissue
A-aponeurosis
L-loose connective tissue
P-periosteum/pericranium

32

What are the functions of the occipitofrontalis muscle?

Lifting the eyebrow and upper eyelid and wrinkling of the forehead = astonishment

33

What is the innervation of the anterior part of the scalp (anterior to the external ear)?

All three branches of the trigeminal nerve

34

What is the innervation of the posterior part of the scalp?

Branches of C2 and C3

35

What structure forms the ventral rami of C5-T1 and what does it supply?

Brachial plexus - supplies the upper limb

36

In which layer of the scalp are blood vessels present?

Dense connective tissue

37

What artery are the supratrochlear artery and supraorbital artery branches of?

Internal carotid

38

What artery are the superficial temporal, posterior auricular and occipital arteries branches of?

External carotid

39

What is diploe?

Cancellous (spongy) bone separating the inner and outer layers of the cortical bone of the skull

40

Do the muscles of facial expressions lie superficial or deep?

Superficial

41

What nerve innervates all of the muscles of facial expression?

Facial (CrN VII)

42

From which foramen does the facial nerve emerge onto the side the side of the face?

Stylomastoid

43

What bony points lie on either side of the stylomastoid foramen?

Styloid and mastoid

44

What are the three pairs of salivary glands?

Parotid, submandibular and sublingual

45

What are the relations of the parotid gland?

Base: Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Superior: Zygomatic
Inferiorly: Angle of the mandible
Apex: Masseter
Posterior: External Auditory Meatus

46

What type of gland is the parotid gland?

Exocrine gland

47

What is the difference between an exocrine and an endocrine gland?

Exocrine: has a duct
Endocrine: secretes directly into the blood

48

Which nerve branches emerge from the anterior border of the parotid gland?

Facial nerve

49

Which muscle does the parotid pierce to enter the oral cavity?

Buccinator

50

Where does the parotid duct open into the oral cavity

Opposite the maxillary 2nd molar

51

What artery gives off branches in the parotid gland?

ECA

52

What vein runs through the parotid gland?

Retromandibular vein

53

Which cranial nerve has fibres destined for the parotid gland?

Glossopharyngeal

54

Where does the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland come from?

Superior cervical ganglion of the paravertebral chain

55

Which cranial nerve gives sensory innervation to the face?

Trigeminal (CrN V)

56

What are the three main branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular

57

Which artery are the facial and superficial temporal branches of?

ECA

58

What muscle lies immediately posterior to the facial artery as it enters onto the face?

Masseter

59

Which vein do the facial and superficial temporal veins drain into?

Internal jugular vein

60

What are the contents of the vertebral compartment of the neck?

Cervical vertebrae and postural muscles

61

What are the contents of the vascular compartments?

Major blood vessels and the vagus nerve

62

What are the contents of the visceral compartment?

Thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, part of the thymus gland, pharynx, larynx, trachea and oesophagus

63

What encloses the vertebral, vascular and visceral compartments?

Musculofascial collar

64

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

65

What kind of joint is present between the occipital condyles and C1 (atlas)?

Condyloid joint

66

What structures pass through the transverse foramen?

Vertebral arteries, veins and sympathetic nerve plexus

67

What is the vertebra prominens?

Spinous process of C7

68

What is the special feature of the spines of cervical vertebrae?

Short and bifid

69

What curvature exists in the cervical portion of the vertebral column?

Lordosis

70

What are the borders of the anterior triangle?

Superiorly: Inferior border of the mandible
Posteriorly: Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
Anteriorly: Midline of the neck

71

What are the borders of the posterior triangle?

Anteriorly: Posterior border of the SCM
Posteriorly: Anterior border of the trapezius
Inferiorly: Middle 1/3 of the clavicle

72

What are the attachments of the SCM?

Sternum, clavicle and mastoid process

73

What are the actions of the trapezius?

Moving/rotating/stabilising the scapula and extending the head

74

Which cranial nerve innervates the SCM and trapezius?

Accessory (CrN XI)

75

What are the boundaries of the submental triangle?

Hyoid bone, midline of the neck and digastric muscle

76

Which lymph nodes are found in the submental triangle?

Submental lymph nodes

77

What are the borders of the digastric/submandibular triangle?

Mandible and digastric muscle

78

What are the contents of the digastric/submandibular triangle?

Facial artery and submandibular gland

79

What are the borders of the carotid triangle?

Posterior belly of the digastric muscle, SCM and omohyoid muscle

80

What are the contents of the neurovascular sheath?

Common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hypoglossal nerve and vagus nerve

81

What are the borders of the muscular triangle?

Hyoid bone, midline, omohyoid muscle and SCM

82

What are the strap muscles of the neck?

Infrahyoid muscles

83

Which artery does the right CCA arise from?

Brachiocephalic

84

Which artery does the left CCA arise from?

Aorta

85

At what vertebral level does the CCA divide into the ECA and the ICA?

C4

86

Which branch of the CCA gives off branches in the neck?

ECA

87

Which branch of the CCA is the most lateral?

ICA

88

What are the two terminal branches of the ECA and in what structure are they given off?

Maxillary and superficial temporal - parotid gland

89

What vein does the IJV join with and what vein is formed?

Subclavian > brachiocephalic

90

Does the EJV run superficial or deep to the SCM?

Superficial

91

What vein does the EJV drain into?

Subclavian

92

Where does the vagus nerve lie in relation to the vascular contents of the neurovascular sheath?

Posteriorly

93

Where does the phrenic nerve arise from?

From the cervical plexus

94

Where does the phrenic nerve lie in relation to the carotid sheath?

Deep and posterior

95

Which muscles are attached to the hyoid bone?

Suprahyoid, infrahyoid, genioglossus and middle pharyngeal constrictor

96

Name the suprahyoid muscles?

Mylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric and stylohyoid

97

What is the nerve supply to the mylohyoid muscle?

Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

98

What is the nerve supply to the geniohyoid muscle?

C1 nerve roots that run within the hypoglossal nerve

99

What is the nerve supply to the digastric muscle?

Trigeminal and facial nerve

100

What is the nerve supply to the stylohyoid muscle?

Facial nerve

101

What actions do the suprahyoid muscles have on the hyoid bone and the mandible?

Elevate the hyoid bone and open the jaw

102

Name the infrahyoid muscles?

Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid and omohyoid

103

What is the nerve supply to the sternohyoid muscle and what is its function?

Anterior rami of C1-3 -depresses the hyoid

104

What is the nerve supply and function of the sternothyroid muscle?

C1-3 - depresses the thyroid

105

What is the nerve supply and function of the thyrohyoid muscle?

C1 (within the hypoglossal nerve) - depresses the thyroid

106

What is the nerve supply and function of the omohyoid muscle?

Anterior rami of C1-3 - depresses the hyoid

107

What are the vertebral roots of the cervical plexus?

C1-4

108

Between which two muscles does the cervical plexus emerge?

SCM and trapezius

109

What is ansa cervicalis?

Loops of the cervical plexus

110

What are the anatomical parts of the thyroid gland?

R+L lobe and isthmus

111

At what level does the isthmus of the thyroid gland lie in relation to the trachea?

2&3 tracheal rings

112

In which compartment of the neck does the thyroid gland lie?

Visceral