Flashcards in Head and Neck Anatomy Week 1 Deck (112):
Where is the deep cervical fascia?
It surrounds the neck and sends septa internally to delineate compartments
Would wounds to the scalp bleed profusely or sparingly and why?
Profusely - due to the connective tissue in the 2nd layer which prevents vasoconstriction
What is the 3rd layer of the scalp?
Aponeurosis of the occipitofrontalis muscle
What is the clinical significance of the emissary veins?
These valveless veins transverse the diploe and can spread infection intracranially
How do sympathetic fibres reach those regions supplied by cranial nerves?
Postganglionic fibres from the sympathetic chain form a plexus and hitch a ride with blood vessels
What are the branches of the trigeminal nerve?
Do the branches of the trigeminal nerve carry sensory fibres, motor fibres or both?
V1 - Sensory
V2 - Sensory
V3 - Sensory + Motor
What fibres does the facial nerve contain?
Motor, sensory (special senses) and parasympathetic fibres
What structures pass through the parotid gland?
External Carotid branches, retromandibular vein, facial nerve and facial artery
What are the contents of the carotid sheath?
Carotid arteries, internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve
Where does the right common carotid arise from?
Where does the left common carotid arise from?
Directly from the aortic arch
What does the ECA supply?
Neck, face and scalp
What does the ICA supply?
What do C1-5 form?
The cervical plexus
What are the three parts of the skull?
Neuro-cranium, facial skull (viscera-cranium) and mandible
Which part of the skull bone houses the red marrow?
Diploe (spongy bone)
What are the main sutures of the skull?
Sagittal, coronal and lambdoid
Between which bones does the sagittal suture lie?
The two parietal bones
Between which bones does the coronal suture lie?
Between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones
Between which bones does the lambdoid suture lie?
Between the occipital bone and the parietal bones
Which bone is the occipital protuberance a part of?
Which bone is the mastoid process a part of?
Which bones is the zygomatic process a part of?
Temporal and zygomatic
What bone is the styloid process a part of?
What bone are the occipital condyles a part of?
What is the largest foramen in the posterior cranial fossa?
Name two structures that pass through foramen magnum?
The medulla (where it becomes the spinal cord) and the right and left vertebral arteries
What bone is the superior nuchal line a part of?
What type of joint is present in the zygomatic arch?
What are the five layers of the scalp?
L-loose connective tissue
What are the functions of the occipitofrontalis muscle?
Lifting the eyebrow and upper eyelid and wrinkling of the forehead = astonishment
What is the innervation of the anterior part of the scalp (anterior to the external ear)?
All three branches of the trigeminal nerve
What is the innervation of the posterior part of the scalp?
Branches of C2 and C3
What structure forms the ventral rami of C5-T1 and what does it supply?
Brachial plexus - supplies the upper limb
In which layer of the scalp are blood vessels present?
Dense connective tissue
What artery are the supratrochlear artery and supraorbital artery branches of?
What artery are the superficial temporal, posterior auricular and occipital arteries branches of?
What is diploe?
Cancellous (spongy) bone separating the inner and outer layers of the cortical bone of the skull
Do the muscles of facial expressions lie superficial or deep?
What nerve innervates all of the muscles of facial expression?
Facial (CrN VII)
From which foramen does the facial nerve emerge onto the side the side of the face?
What bony points lie on either side of the stylomastoid foramen?
Styloid and mastoid
What are the three pairs of salivary glands?
Parotid, submandibular and sublingual
What are the relations of the parotid gland?
Base: Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Inferiorly: Angle of the mandible
Posterior: External Auditory Meatus
What type of gland is the parotid gland?
What is the difference between an exocrine and an endocrine gland?
Exocrine: has a duct
Endocrine: secretes directly into the blood
Which nerve branches emerge from the anterior border of the parotid gland?
Which muscle does the parotid pierce to enter the oral cavity?
Where does the parotid duct open into the oral cavity
Opposite the maxillary 2nd molar
What artery gives off branches in the parotid gland?
What vein runs through the parotid gland?
Which cranial nerve has fibres destined for the parotid gland?
Where does the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland come from?
Superior cervical ganglion of the paravertebral chain
Which cranial nerve gives sensory innervation to the face?
Trigeminal (CrN V)
What are the three main branches of the trigeminal nerve?
Opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular
Which artery are the facial and superficial temporal branches of?
What muscle lies immediately posterior to the facial artery as it enters onto the face?
Which vein do the facial and superficial temporal veins drain into?
Internal jugular vein
What are the contents of the vertebral compartment of the neck?
Cervical vertebrae and postural muscles
What are the contents of the vascular compartments?
Major blood vessels and the vagus nerve
What are the contents of the visceral compartment?
Thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, part of the thymus gland, pharynx, larynx, trachea and oesophagus
What encloses the vertebral, vascular and visceral compartments?
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
What kind of joint is present between the occipital condyles and C1 (atlas)?
What structures pass through the transverse foramen?
Vertebral arteries, veins and sympathetic nerve plexus
What is the vertebra prominens?
Spinous process of C7
What is the special feature of the spines of cervical vertebrae?
Short and bifid
What curvature exists in the cervical portion of the vertebral column?
What are the borders of the anterior triangle?
Superiorly: Inferior border of the mandible
Posteriorly: Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
Anteriorly: Midline of the neck
What are the borders of the posterior triangle?
Anteriorly: Posterior border of the SCM
Posteriorly: Anterior border of the trapezius
Inferiorly: Middle 1/3 of the clavicle
What are the attachments of the SCM?
Sternum, clavicle and mastoid process
What are the actions of the trapezius?
Moving/rotating/stabilising the scapula and extending the head
Which cranial nerve innervates the SCM and trapezius?
Accessory (CrN XI)
What are the boundaries of the submental triangle?
Hyoid bone, midline of the neck and digastric muscle
Which lymph nodes are found in the submental triangle?
Submental lymph nodes
What are the borders of the digastric/submandibular triangle?
Mandible and digastric muscle
What are the contents of the digastric/submandibular triangle?
Facial artery and submandibular gland
What are the borders of the carotid triangle?
Posterior belly of the digastric muscle, SCM and omohyoid muscle
What are the contents of the neurovascular sheath?
Common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hypoglossal nerve and vagus nerve
What are the borders of the muscular triangle?
Hyoid bone, midline, omohyoid muscle and SCM
What are the strap muscles of the neck?
Which artery does the right CCA arise from?
Which artery does the left CCA arise from?
At what vertebral level does the CCA divide into the ECA and the ICA?
Which branch of the CCA gives off branches in the neck?
Which branch of the CCA is the most lateral?
What are the two terminal branches of the ECA and in what structure are they given off?
Maxillary and superficial temporal - parotid gland
What vein does the IJV join with and what vein is formed?
Subclavian > brachiocephalic
Does the EJV run superficial or deep to the SCM?
What vein does the EJV drain into?
Where does the vagus nerve lie in relation to the vascular contents of the neurovascular sheath?
Where does the phrenic nerve arise from?
From the cervical plexus
Where does the phrenic nerve lie in relation to the carotid sheath?
Deep and posterior
Which muscles are attached to the hyoid bone?
Suprahyoid, infrahyoid, genioglossus and middle pharyngeal constrictor
Name the suprahyoid muscles?
Mylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric and stylohyoid
What is the nerve supply to the mylohyoid muscle?
Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
What is the nerve supply to the geniohyoid muscle?
C1 nerve roots that run within the hypoglossal nerve
What is the nerve supply to the digastric muscle?
Trigeminal and facial nerve
What is the nerve supply to the stylohyoid muscle?
What actions do the suprahyoid muscles have on the hyoid bone and the mandible?
Elevate the hyoid bone and open the jaw
Name the infrahyoid muscles?
Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid and omohyoid
What is the nerve supply to the sternohyoid muscle and what is its function?
Anterior rami of C1-3 -depresses the hyoid
What is the nerve supply and function of the sternothyroid muscle?
C1-3 - depresses the thyroid
What is the nerve supply and function of the thyrohyoid muscle?
C1 (within the hypoglossal nerve) - depresses the thyroid
What is the nerve supply and function of the omohyoid muscle?
Anterior rami of C1-3 - depresses the hyoid
What are the vertebral roots of the cervical plexus?
Between which two muscles does the cervical plexus emerge?
SCM and trapezius
What is ansa cervicalis?
Loops of the cervical plexus
What are the anatomical parts of the thyroid gland?
R+L lobe and isthmus
At what level does the isthmus of the thyroid gland lie in relation to the trachea?
2&3 tracheal rings