Flashcards in Nose/Sinuses Anatomy and Physiology Deck (27):
What are the functions of the nose?
Warming and humidifying inhaled air, immune barrier and smell
Why is nasal function important for neonates?
They are obligate nasal breathers
What type of epithelium lines the nasal passages?
Anterior 1/3 stratified squamous epithelium (nasal hairs)
Posterior 2/3 psuedostratified columnar (cilia, goblet cells and mucus)
What nerve is responsible for smell and which part of the skull does it go through?
Olfactory nerve - cribriform plate
Which structure is responsible for drainage and aeration of the middle ear?
What are the functions of the sinuses?
Reservoir of warm humid air, lighten skull, crumple zones, vocal resonance and immune barrier (lined with mucosa)
Which areas of the nose are bone and which are cartilage?
Upper 1/3 is bone and lower 2/3 are cartilagenous
What are the borders of the nasal passages?
Midline - septum
Roof - skullbase/cribriform plate
Wall - turbinates
Floor - hard palate
Which structures are associated with the nasal passages?
Paranasal sinuses, orbits - lamina papyracea, Eustachian tube and adenoids
What bones/cartilage make up the nasal septum?
Septal cartilage, vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
Where does the septal cartilage get its blood supply from?
The mucosa overlying it
What are the causes of perforations to the nasal septum?
Septal haematoma, trauma (including digital) and drugs
What are the consequences of septal haematomas?
The septum necroses which leads to perforation (whistling and bleeding)
What are the three turbinates?
Superior, middle and inferior
What are the functions of the turbinates?
Increase the surface area, humidification and warming
What is the function of the nasolacrimal duct?
Drainage pathway of tears
Where does the nasolacrimal duct open into the nose?
Name the paranasal sinuses?
Frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid
Where do the frontal sinuses drain?
Where do the ethmoid air cells drain?
Anterior - Middle meatus
Posterior - Superior meatus
Which piece of bone sits between the ethmoid air cells and the orbit?
Where does the sphenoid sinus drain?
Which important structures run next to the sphenoid sinus?
Above: Optic nerve
On Either Side: Internal Carotids
Posterior: Pituitary gland
Where do the maxillary sinuses drain?
What is Little's area?
Most common site of epistaxis (nosebleeds)
What is the innervation of the nose?
Almost all trigeminal V1 and V2
Sensation - Facial