Nose/Sinuses Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nose/Sinuses Anatomy and Physiology Deck (27):
1

What are the functions of the nose?

Warming and humidifying inhaled air, immune barrier and smell

2

Why is nasal function important for neonates?

They are obligate nasal breathers

3

What type of epithelium lines the nasal passages?

Anterior 1/3 stratified squamous epithelium (nasal hairs)
Posterior 2/3 psuedostratified columnar (cilia, goblet cells and mucus)

4

What nerve is responsible for smell and which part of the skull does it go through?

Olfactory nerve - cribriform plate

5

Which structure is responsible for drainage and aeration of the middle ear?

Eustachian tube

6

What are the functions of the sinuses?

Reservoir of warm humid air, lighten skull, crumple zones, vocal resonance and immune barrier (lined with mucosa)

7

Which areas of the nose are bone and which are cartilage?

Upper 1/3 is bone and lower 2/3 are cartilagenous

8

What are the borders of the nasal passages?

Midline - septum
Roof - skullbase/cribriform plate
Wall - turbinates
Floor - hard palate

9

Which structures are associated with the nasal passages?

Paranasal sinuses, orbits - lamina papyracea, Eustachian tube and adenoids

10

What bones/cartilage make up the nasal septum?

Septal cartilage, vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

11

Where does the septal cartilage get its blood supply from?

The mucosa overlying it

12

What are the causes of perforations to the nasal septum?

Septal haematoma, trauma (including digital) and drugs

13

What are the consequences of septal haematomas?

The septum necroses which leads to perforation (whistling and bleeding)

14

What are the three turbinates?

Superior, middle and inferior

15

What are the functions of the turbinates?

Increase the surface area, humidification and warming

16

What is the function of the nasolacrimal duct?

Drainage pathway of tears

17

Where does the nasolacrimal duct open into the nose?

Inferior meatus

18

Name the paranasal sinuses?

Frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid

19

Where do the frontal sinuses drain?

Middle meatus

20

Where do the ethmoid air cells drain?

Anterior - Middle meatus
Posterior - Superior meatus

21

Which piece of bone sits between the ethmoid air cells and the orbit?

Lamina papyracea

22

Where does the sphenoid sinus drain?

Sphenoethmoidal recess

23

Which important structures run next to the sphenoid sinus?

Above: Optic nerve
On Either Side: Internal Carotids
Posterior: Pituitary gland

24

Where do the maxillary sinuses drain?

Middle meatus

25

What is Little's area?

Most common site of epistaxis (nosebleeds)

26

What is the innervation of the nose?

Almost all trigeminal V1 and V2
Sensation - Facial

27

What important structures sit in the post nasal space?

Adenoids and opening of Eustachian tube