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Flashcards in Head and neck cancer Deck (22)
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1

What is a head and neck cancer?

Cancer affecting the upper aero-digestive structures

2

What are some examples of head and neck cancers?

Mouth cancer

Nose cancer

Nasal cavity cancer

Pharyngeal cancer

Laryngeal cancer

3

How common are head and neck cancers compared to other types of cancers?

Less common

4

What histological type of cancer are head and neck cancers usually?

Squamous cell carcinoma

5

Why are head and cancers usually squamous cell carcinomas histologically?

Because most of the structures are lined with stratified squamous epithelium

6

Which head and neck cancers are the most common?

Oral cavity

Oropharynx

Larynx

7

What are the risk factors of head and neck cancer?

Heavy alcohol

Heavy tobacco use

Age

Epstein-Barr virus infection

HPV infection

Chewing betel quid

Long term exposure to sunlight

8

Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with what type of head and neck cancer the most?

Nasopharyngeal cancer

9

HPV infection is assocuated with what type of head and neck cancer the most?

Oropharyngeal cancer

10

What are the common signs and symptoms of head and neck cancers?

Painful mucosal ulceraton within oral cavity

Hoarse voice

Dysphagia, odynophagia

Otalgia

Cervical lymphadenopathy

11

What is meant by odynophagia?

Painful swallowing

12

What causes otalgia in head and neck cancers?

Referred pain to the ear
because sensory innervation is by the facial nerve

13

What do head and cancers meastasise to?

Lymph nodes of neck

14

What investigations are done in order to stage a head and neck cancer?

Biopsy

CT/MRI imaging

Endoscopy

15

What is the staging system for head and neck cancers?

TNM tumour node metastases

16

What are the stages of head and cancer with the TNM staging system?

Stages 1-4

17

How does the prognosis change with stages 1 to stages 4 of head and cancers?

Worse prognosis

18

Why are head and neck cancers staged?

Affects treatment

19

What are the different types of treatment for head and neck cancers?

Surgery

Radiotherapy

Chemoradiotherapy

20

When is surgery done to treat a head and cancer?

Early stage cancer

21

When is chemoradiotherapy used to treat a head and neck cancer?

Later stage cancer

22

What does the type of surgery done to treat head and neck cancers depend on?

The size of the cancer

The spread of the cancer