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Flashcards in head trauma Deck (66)
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1

what is the primary injury in head trauma?

what occurs at the scene, damage is irreversible, may be focal or diffuse, and treat the consequences

2

What are the secondary injuries in head trauma?

occur any time after primary event; potentially prevetable, inflammation, reperfusion, superoxide production, necrosis, apoptosis

3

Greatest negative affect in head injuries?

decreased oxygen

4

30% of patients are hypoxic on admission for head injuries d/t what 2 causes?

central resp depression, chest injuries

5

What 2 things do you consider first in head injuries?

hypoxia and shock

6

What should you do first in a head injury pt before sedation and paralytics?

baseline neuro exam

7

Signs of compression of oculomotor nerve?

dilation and sluggish response

8

Indication of uncal herniation?

maximally dilated and blown pupil

9

6 positive findings on CT scan?

midline shift, distortion of ventricle and cisterns, effacement of sulci in uninjured hemisphere, presence of hematoma in any location of cranial vault, fractures, intracranial air

10

Severe head injury requires immediate?

intubation using c spine stabilization and techniques that avoid increasing ICP

11

Most frequent type of head injury?

scalp laceration

12

Extensive scalp lacerations can result in?

significant blood loss and air embolism

13

Head injury that results from a violent shock or jarring?

concussion

14

5 sx associated w concussion?

transient amnesia, vertigo, nausea, weak pulse, slow respiration

15

3 types of skull fractures?

open, depressed, basilar

16

Open fractures include those....?

with deep scalp lacerations and fractures extending in to the sinuses

17

What does an open skull fracture require w/in 24 hours?

debridement

18

Linear fractures that occur on the floor of the cranial vault are?

basilar skull fractures

19

This type of skull fracture requires more force to cause than other fractures?

basilar

20

4 signs of basilar skull fracture?

blood in sinuses, CSF leak from nose/ears, racoons eyes (periorbital ecchymosis), battle's sign (retroaricular ecchymosis or bruising over the mastoid process)

21

Highest mortality rate and most common of all cranial lesions?

subdural hematoma

22

Where is subdural hematoma located?

between brain and dura

23

Subdural hematoma usually caused by?

accel decel

24

Shape of subdural hematoma?

crescent

25

Treatment of subdural hematoma?

immediate surgical decompression

26

What shape and where is an epidural hematoma?

biconvex and located between dura and skull

27

Usual cause of epidural hematoma?

torn middle meningeal injury

28

5 sx of epidural hematoma?

HA, vomiting, seizure, HTN, difficulty breathing

29

What is characteristic of epidural hematomas?

have brief LOC followed by periods of lucidness. often walk and die though

30

Treatment for small epidural hematoma w no pressure on brain?

observation