Flashcards in head trauma Deck (66)
what is the primary injury in head trauma?
what occurs at the scene, damage is irreversible, may be focal or diffuse, and treat the consequences
What are the secondary injuries in head trauma?
occur any time after primary event; potentially prevetable, inflammation, reperfusion, superoxide production, necrosis, apoptosis
Greatest negative affect in head injuries?
30% of patients are hypoxic on admission for head injuries d/t what 2 causes?
central resp depression, chest injuries
What 2 things do you consider first in head injuries?
hypoxia and shock
What should you do first in a head injury pt before sedation and paralytics?
baseline neuro exam
Signs of compression of oculomotor nerve?
dilation and sluggish response
Indication of uncal herniation?
maximally dilated and blown pupil
6 positive findings on CT scan?
midline shift, distortion of ventricle and cisterns, effacement of sulci in uninjured hemisphere, presence of hematoma in any location of cranial vault, fractures, intracranial air
Severe head injury requires immediate?
intubation using c spine stabilization and techniques that avoid increasing ICP
Most frequent type of head injury?
Extensive scalp lacerations can result in?
significant blood loss and air embolism
Head injury that results from a violent shock or jarring?
5 sx associated w concussion?
transient amnesia, vertigo, nausea, weak pulse, slow respiration
3 types of skull fractures?
open, depressed, basilar
Open fractures include those....?
with deep scalp lacerations and fractures extending in to the sinuses
What does an open skull fracture require w/in 24 hours?
Linear fractures that occur on the floor of the cranial vault are?
basilar skull fractures
This type of skull fracture requires more force to cause than other fractures?
4 signs of basilar skull fracture?
blood in sinuses, CSF leak from nose/ears, racoons eyes (periorbital ecchymosis), battle's sign (retroaricular ecchymosis or bruising over the mastoid process)
Highest mortality rate and most common of all cranial lesions?
Where is subdural hematoma located?
between brain and dura
Subdural hematoma usually caused by?
Shape of subdural hematoma?
Treatment of subdural hematoma?
immediate surgical decompression
What shape and where is an epidural hematoma?
biconvex and located between dura and skull
Usual cause of epidural hematoma?
torn middle meningeal injury
5 sx of epidural hematoma?
HA, vomiting, seizure, HTN, difficulty breathing
What is characteristic of epidural hematomas?
have brief LOC followed by periods of lucidness. often walk and die though