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Flashcards in Pediatric Anesthesia Deck (62)
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1

Newborn is?

first 24 hours

2

Neonate is what or what?

first 30 days or 44 weeks of age from conception

3

Infants are?

1 month to a year

4

Toddler is?

1-3 years

5

Preschooler is?

4-6 years

6

School age is?

6-13 years

7

Prematurity is less than how many weeks gestation?

37 weeks

8

Postgestational age is?

gestational age plus postnatal age

9

3 major concerns with premature babies?

pulmonary, cardiac, retinopathy

10

Obligate nasal breathers until what age?

5 months

11

What is choanal atresia?

narrowing or blockage of the nasal passages by tissue

12

The larynx is _______, ________. and at what level in full term?

anterior, cephalad, C4

13

Larynx is at what level in preterm, age 6, and an adult?

C3; C5; C5-6

14

3 characteristics of peds epiglottis?

omega shaped, stubby, short

15

ETT is likely to hang up where in a kid?

anterior commissure

16

Cricoid is the narrowest point at what age?

10 years

17

In neonates, how many cm are from the cords to the carina?

2 cm

18

Which muscle cells are poorly developed at birth, leaving the diaphragm to do most of the gas exchange?

type II

19

Alveoli are smaller and limited in number until what age?

8 years

20

Which one is increased and which decreased, lung compliance and chest wall compliance?

lung compliance is decreased and chest wall compliance is increased

21

Why is it that infants have a limited reserve with apnea and intubation attempts?

decreased RV affects the FRC

22

An infant's metabolic rate and O2 consumption is how many times that of an adult?

2

23

MV:FRC ratio in neonates?

5:1

24

What 2 things produce less reserve in a neonate?

higher minute ventilation and decreased RV

25

How can you prevent atelectasis in neonate?

CPAP, PEEP, higher RR

26

How do TVs in infants and adults compare?

they're about the same on a mL/kg basis

27

How does FRC compare in neonates and adults?

about the same percentage

28

How do closing volumes compare in neonate and adult?

closing volumes are higher in neonate

29

Why do you have to be extremely vigilant about monitoring respirations after surgery in peds?

hypoxic and hypercapnic drives are not mature

30

How do neonates manifest hypoxia?

brief period of hyperventilation followed by hypoventilation