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Flashcards in Health 2 Deck (18):
1

Somatoform Disorders - def? stem from?

  • Disorders in which patient displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition
  • Stem from too much sensitivity

2

Psychosomatic illness - def? three ex?

  • interaction between mind and body that can produce illness
  • study how ways mind (psyche) can influence body (Soma) and vice versa
  • hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, conversion disorder

3

Hypochondriasis

  • psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life threating illness
  • Constantly worrying about health, tendency to catastrophize symptoms by imagining the worst possible interpretation becomes chronic source of anxiety

4

Somatization Disorder

  • combinations of multiple physical complaints that have no medical explanation
  • Greater focus on symptoms
  • Want someone to sympathize with physical problems, but complaints only alienate others

5

Conversion disorder

  • apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but the person experiences them as involuntary
  • Seizures, paralysis, blindness, deafness with no neural basis

6

Being a Patient - Sick Role

  • socially recognized set of right and obligations linked with illness
  • No responsibilities, exempted from normal activities
  • Obligations: can’t appear to enjoy illness, must pursue treatment to end it

7

Malingering

  • feigning medical/psychological symptoms to achieve something they want
  • secondary gains of illness outweigh costs – ability to rest, freed from performing unpleasant tasks, being helped by others, insurance benefits

8

Patient - Practitioner Interaction - compliance?

  • study checking compliance reveals compliance is quite poor
  • deteriorates when treatment must be frequent, inconvenient, painful, and also decreases as number of treatment increases

9

Humour - learned/innate? culture? age? animals? sound?

  • Evidence suggest innate - babies who are blind, deaf laugh – not a learned response
  • cross culture, cross time
  • Animals: laugh as well
  • Start laughing at others around 4 – laughing at someone falling, etc
  • Sound of laughter: indistinguishable across cultures

10

Humour - social context, cognitive perceptual process, emotional reponse, origin?

 

  • Social context: involves more than one person, some situation is happening
  • Cognitive-perceptual process: Odd/incongruent + unimportant
  • Emotional response: feels good, dopamine
  • vocal-behavioural expression
  • Origins of laughter: come from play and practice hunting

11

Social functions humour?

  • Enhances group cohesion: good joke at right time bring people together
  • at the same time, excludes outsiders: people in in group closer together, but clear that people not in that group are excluded – inside jokes = you’re an outsider, or can tell jokes about someone else
  • Reduces status differences: to prof, boss, eliminates social differences
  • Increases status differences: wrong joke at wrong time exasperates differences

12

Two kinds of psychological factors influence personal health?

 

  • Health relevant personality traits: enduring traits and make some people particularly susceptible while sparing others - outside of personal control
  • Health behaviour: engaging in positive health behaviour -something anyone can do

13

Optimism - stability? twins? health effects? why?

  • level of optimism/pessimism is fairly stable over time
  • Personality of twins reared together vs apart: stability arises because these traits are moderately heritable
  • Doesn’t improve physical health directly, but helps maintain psychological health in face of physical problem
  • More likely to maintain positive emotions and avoid negative emotions like anxiety and depression
  • More likely to stick to medical regiments and keep up their relationships

14

Optimism vs Rumination

  • Rumination: opposite, dwelling on negatives
  • poor immune systems, experience stress as worse, and live shorter
  • optimistic people live longer, have better immune systems, experience less severe stress

15

Hardiness - meaning? share three traits?

  • Thick-skinned, resilient, can take stress/abuse that could be devastating to others, view change as a challenge and not stress score high on hardiness
  1. Commitment: involved in life’s tasks/encounters instead of dabbling
  2. Control: actions/words have causal influence over lives, environment
  3. Challenge: accepts challenge, undertaking change, accepting opportunity for growth

16

Other Individual Differences - ego? spirituality?

  • Self-enhancement: people who are full of themselves, self centered, think highly of themselves -cope with stress quite well (being egotistical pays off when dealing with stress)
  • Spirituality/religion: more spiritual/more religious = better immune systems

17


Self Regulation

  • exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards
  • Controlling impulses, putting off immediate gratification for longer-term gains, behaving in a way that will help make you into the kind of person you would prefer to be – aka a healthy one
  • Requires inner strength/will power - theory: strength can be fatigued

18

Textbook stats - americans: overweight/obese? STD? smoke?

  • 67% Americans over 20 are overweight/obese
  • 65 million Americans have incurable STD – 15 million new each year
  • 21% smoke