Heart Failure, Myocarditis, Cardiomyopathies, and Pulmonary HTN II Flashcards Preview

CV II Exam 3 > Heart Failure, Myocarditis, Cardiomyopathies, and Pulmonary HTN II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Failure, Myocarditis, Cardiomyopathies, and Pulmonary HTN II Deck (37):
1

high output failure

normal heart

increased metabolic demand - thyrotoxicosis

excessive blood overwhelms ability of pump - anemia, AV fistula, beriberi, decreased PVR

2

crackles, wheezes, cough, blood tinged sputum, tachypnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

left side failure

3

ascites, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, JVP

right side failure

4

pulmonary edema

backward left heart failure

5

edema, ascites, end organ damage

right heart failure

nutmeg, liver, splenomegaly, GI sx

6

forward failure

mostly in left heart failure

hypotension, weakness, exercise intolerance, endo organ damage (ischemia)

7

NYHA

functional classification of HF

8

something used to be able to do, but now can't

class I HF by NYHA

9

two flights of stairs

class II HF by NYHA

10

no dyspnea at rest with minimal activity

class IIIa HF by NYHA

11

dyspnea at rest with minimal activity

class IIIb HF by NYHA

12

symptoms at rest

class IV HF by NYHA

13

high risk, no structural heart disease

stage A

14

structural disease, no symptoms of HF

stage B

15

structure disease, with symptoms

stage C

16

refractory HF - requires specialized intervention

stage D

17

low BP, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypoxia

CHF

18

bilateral basilar crackles/rales

CHF
-higher up - worse

also dull on percussion, and tactile fremitus

19

parasternal lift

heave

RV enlarged

20

PMI displaced

LV enlarged

21

S3

heard with low EF

22

S4

diastolic dysfunction

23

positive in V1

right ventricular hypertrophy

24

BNP

bad test

high false positive

doesn't rule out other causes of dyspnea

25

main test for CHF

echocardiogram

26

loop diuretics

not mortality, only symptoms

27

asymptomatic CHF

no symptoms drugs - only mortality

28

ACE -

improve Sx and mortality

29

ARBs

improve symptoms and mortality

30

digoxin

improve symptoms
not mortality

31

beta blockers

improve symptoms and mortality

mortality drugs:
metoprolol
carvedilol
bisoprolol

32

beta blocker in HF

upregulate beta receptors

-inotropic anc chronotropic responsivesness of myocardium increased

33

aldosterone antagonists

decreased mortality in severe HF

34

nitrates

improve symptoms

35

african american with CHF

nitrate + hydralazine

36

hydralazine

decreased after load

37

mortality improvements

for CHF patients with decreased systolic function/EF