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Flashcards in Heent Deck (33):
1

What is a flat or low amplitude line on tympanogram associated with

Stiff membrane, middle ear fluid, obstructed tympanostomy tube

2

What is a high line on tympanogram associated with

Hypermobile TM

3

What does high volume (area under the graph) on a tympanogram represent

Perforated TM

4

What is the most common organism associated with chronic suppurative otitis media

Pseudomonas

5

What can be a complication of tympanostomy tubes

Tympanostomy tube granulomas which presents as bloody otorrhea and a large erythematous mass in a pt with PE tubes

6

How can you prevent swimmers ear

Acidifying the ear canal with boric acid or acetic acid solution before and after swimming

7

Bacteria commonly causing mastoiditis

Strep pneumonia, non typeable h flu, strep pyogenes and staph aureus

8

Nasal congestion in an adolescent you would want to r/o what

Cocaine use

9

What is charge syndrome

Coloboma
Heart defect
Atresia choanae
Retardation of growth and development
Genitourinary problems
Ear anomalies

10

Which sinuses develop at birth

Maxillary and ethmoid

11

Which sinuses develop at 5-6 yrs of age

Frontal and sphenoid

12

What are the predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis

Allergy, exposure to tobacco, recurrent viral uri, ger, anatomic abnormalities, immune deficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis

13

Orbital sinusitis can result from infection of which sinus

Ethmoid

14

What's the next step in a patient with worsening epistaxis

CT to rule out a posterior nasopharyngeal mass such as a nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

15

What are the common causes of delayed tooth eruption

Hypothyroidism
Hypopituitarism
Hypoplasia (ectodermal)
Hypohidrosis
Rickets

16

Important facts about cleft lip

More common in males
2/3 have associated cleft palate
Repair around 10 wks of age

17

Important facts about cleft palate alone

More common in females
Highest risk of being associated with a syndrome
Repair between 9-12 months of age and usually include PET placement

18

Syndromes associated with clefts

Pierre robin
Crouzon syndrome
Apert
Treacher Collins syndrome

19

What can a bifid uvula be associated with

Submucous cleft palate
Velopharyngeal insufficiency
Middle ear effusion

20

What can stridor in a neonate represent

Choanal atresia, laryngeal web/stenosis, vascular ring or vocal cord paralysis

21

Stridor in 4-6 wks

Laryngomalacia or tracheomalacia

22

Stridor in 1-4 yrs of age

Croup, epiglottitis, foreign body

23

Stridor >5 yrs

Vocal cord dysfunction, peritonsillar abscess, anaphylaxis

24

How does vocal cord paralysis show on spirometer

Blunted inspiratory loop

25

What causes expiratory stridor

Lesions below the thoracic inlet

Tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia
Vascular rings

26

What can present with biphasic stridor

Congenital and acquired subglottic stenosis or critical obstruction

Tracheomalacia if obstruction is high

Epiglottitis

27

How do you assess subglottic stenosis

Direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy

28

How do you assess vocal cord dysfunction

Flexible nasolaryngealgoscopy or direct laryngoscopy AND CXR, barium swallow

29

How do you assess for vascular ring

Barium swallow

30

How does bacterial tracheitis present

Several days into a bout with viral croup

Toxic appearing

Thick, purulento secretions

Subglottic narrowing

31

What's a type A tympanogram

Normal

32

Type B tympanogram low and high volume

High volume =perforation or PET

Low volume = otitis media with effusion

33

Type C tympanogram

Negative pressure as with retracted membrane