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Flashcards in Helminthes- intestinal flukes Deck (32):
1

Which fluke is the largest and most common intestinal fluke in humans?

fasciolopsis buski

2

What areas are more likely to have fasciolopsis buski?

Asia and Indian subcontinent, especially near pig farms and where humans eat freshwater plants

3

What are the hosts of fasciolpsis buski?

definitive: humans, dogs, pigs, rabbits
intermediate: water snail (1st) and aquatic vegetation (2nd)

4

Which plants are common second intermediate hosts of fasciolopsis buski?

lotus roots, bamboo shoots, water chestnuts

5

In what part of the body is fasciolopsis buski found?

the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine

6

What are the symptoms of fasciolopsis buski infection?

discomfort, nausea, diarrhea (from gut inflammation)
obstruction of small intestine
immune sensitization in the form of edema in the face, abdomen, and lower limbs (rare)

7

How can a fasciolopsis buski infection be diagnosed?

microscopic identification of eggs in the feces. cannot be distinguished from fasciola hepatica (unembryonated with distinct operculum)

8

What can be used to treat fasciolopsis infection?

praziquantel

9

Where can the small intestinal fluke Heterophyes heteropyes be found?

Egypt, Middle East, and Far East

10

What are the hosts of Heterophyes heterophyes?

definitive: humans, dogs, cats, birds
intermediate: snail (1st) and fish (2nd)

11

What are the characteristic of Heterophyes heterophyes eggs?

indistinct opeculum, thick egg shell, embryonated (miracidium inside)

12

What is the pathology of Heterophyes heterophyes infection?

mild inflammatory response, mucosa and submucosa may become ulcerated. results in diarrhea and abdominal pain
rare: migration of eggs to heart (myocardial and valve damage) or other parts of the body

13

How can a heteropyes heterophyes infection be diagnosed?

microscopic identification of eggs.
cannot be distinguished from Metagonimus yokogawai eggs and resembles those of Clonorchis and Opisthorchis

14

Which drug can treat heterophyes heterophyes?

praziquantel

15

Where does the VERY small intestinal fluke Metagonimus yokogawai live in the world?

Far East, Siberia, Manchuria, Balkan states, Israel, Spain

16

What are the hosts of Metagonimus yokogawai?

definitive: humans, dogs, cats, canines
intermediate: water snail (1st) and fish (2nd)

17

What are the characteristics of the egg of Metagonimus yokogawai?

inconspicuous operculum, embryonated

18

What is the pathology of Metagonimus yokogawai?

mild inflammatory response in the mucosa of the small intestine
other symptoms caused by migration of eggs

19

How can Metagonimus yokogawai infection be diagnosed?

same as heterophyes heterophyes
specific identification of adult fluke, but only if worms are removed

20

What drug can treat Metagonimus yokogawai infection?

praziquantel

21

Where can Echinostoma species be found?

worldwide, 10 known human species, frequently in Southeast Asia and where undercooked/raw freshwater snails, clams, and fish

22

What is the common name for Echinostoma species?

spiny fluke

23

What are the hosts of the spiny fluke?

definitive: humans, aquatic birds
intermediate: water snail (1st), and clam, snail, leech, fish or tadpole (2nd)

24

What are some characteristics of the skiny fluke eggs?

vary in size depending on species, inconspicuous operculum, unembryonated in feces.
very similar to Fasciola and Fasciolopsis

25

What is the pathology of spiny flukes?

causes chronic inflammation of small intestine caused by sharp spine puncturing the mucosal layer
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain in heavy infections
never death

26

How can spiny fluke infection be diagnosed?

microscopic identification of eggs in species
must view adult to distinguish between species and Fasciola and Fasciolopsis species

27

Which drugs treat spiny fluke infections?

praziquantel thymol, carbon tetrachloride, kamala, and bithionol

28

Which fluke genus causes black spot disease in fish?

Neascus species

29

Which fluke genus causes yellow grub disease in fish?

Clinostomum species

30

Where do Neascus and Clinostomum species reside in the fish?

in the mouth (NOT intestines, liver, etc.)

31

What is black spot disease?

When this species leaves the snail, it infects the fish and encysts into a dark pigmented form. the flukes themselves are actually white

32

What is yellow grub?

parasite burrows in the muscle of the fish