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Flashcards in Trypanosoma Deck (30):

What are the African trypanosome species?

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West Africa) & Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (East Africa).
RARELY Trypanosoma brucei brucei (normally does not affect humans)


What is the American trypanosome species?

Trypanosoma cruzi


What is the common name for African Trypanosome disease and where is it found?

sleeping sickness. not found in deserts but in the surrounding areas in Africa


What is the vector for the African Trypanosomes?

tsetse fly, genus Glossina


how are the two species differentiated?

they are morphologically different


What does Trypanosoma brucei brucei do?

-African ruminants as host
-causing nagana, a type of sleeping sickness in animals
-reduces growth rate, milk productivity & strength, leading to eventual death
-very difficult for farmers


How are the equine and camel trypanosomes different?

T equinim, T equiperdum, and T evansi are transferred by blood contact during copulation or by other biting insects that probe animals for blood (ex horse flies).
more widespread disease bc outside tsetse fly range


What are the preferred hosts for each trypanosoma species?

T brucei gambiense: prefer humans but also infect pigs & other animals
T brucei rhodesiense: prefer wild animals but will also infect humans


How else can the parasite be transferred?

-across the placenta
-blood transfusion
-sexual contact (rare)
-lab accidents


Which species causes the chronic condition?

Tb gambiense (central & western Africa). can take time for symptoms to emerge


Which species causes the acute condition?

Tb rhodesiense (southern & eastern Africa). emerges in a few weeks, develops quickly and is more virulent


How does Trypanosoma evade the host immune system and how does this work?

Antigen Variation
-uses variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs)
-covers itself with VSGs
-when attacked, changes VSGs
-has over 1000 vsg genes


What is the pathogenicity of Tb gambiense?

invades the central nervous system
causes apathy, mental dullness, tremor of hands, lethargic tongue. followed by convulsions and paralysis
followed by coma and death


What is the pathogenicity of Tb rhodesiense?

does not attack the nervous system
causes rapid death after weight loss and heart involvement
winterbottom's sign= swelling of lymph nodes along the back of neck


How is sleeping sickness diagnosed?

detection of trypomastigote (only found in humans) from lymph node, blood, bone marrow or cerebral fluid. observe motile parasites, then fix and use giemsa stain


How is sleeping sickness treated?

Pentamidine (West) & suramin (East) treat the hemolymphatic stages
melarsoprol treats the late disease with central nervous system involvement


Where does Tb gambiense deposit its larvae?

moist areas along rivers. a bit easier to control


Where does Tb rhodesiense & brucei deposit their larvae?

in dry soil. more difficult to control


How can both trypanosoma brucei be controlled?

chemical spraying, elimination of wild game, selectively breeding cattle


What is the name of the disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi?

Chagas disease


What is the vector species of Trypanosoma cruzi?

triatomine bugs (aka kissing bug) belonging to Triatoma, Rhodinius and Panstrongylus


How else can chagas disease be transmitted?

-blood transfusions
-organ transplants
-lab accidents


How does the triatomine bug transfer the parasite?

takes a blood meal, then defecates. parasite is carried in feces
different species defecate at different times and can have different chances of transmitting the disease


How are animal affected?

also get bit, but often do not get the disease


What is the pathogenicity of Trypanosoma cruzi?

manifests in hollow organs and causes cell death because of parasite replication. may infect individuals for life
heart is often infected and can cause serious problems if blood vessels rupture


What is Romana's sign?

a marker of acute chagas disease. swelling of the eyelid due to feces getting rubbed into the eyes


What are some symptoms of Chagas disease?

early: local swelling
late: heart disease, malformation of intestines. fatal


What occurs in the chronic phase?

immunity to re-infection but parasites still present and cause problems including cardiomyopathy, megaesophagus, megacolon. can also be asymptomatic


How can Chagas disease be diagnosed?

identification of amastigotes or trypomastigotesvia blood smears (thick & thin using giemsa. common) or biopsies (less common)


How is Chagas disease controlled?

no vaccine
insecticides & improving house sanitation. paint house with insecticides
mosquito nets
testing blood before transfusion