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Flashcards in Leishmania Deck (48):
1

Which genera belong to the family Kinetoplastids?

Leishmania & Trypanosoma

2

Define kinetoplast

a disk-shaped mass of circular DNA inside a large mitochondrion that contains many copies of the mitochondrial genome

3

What are maxi-circles?

ktDNA encoding several genes, similar to mitochondrial DNA.
the mRNAs coming from the maxi-circles has many errors in it and requires editing

4

What are mini-circles?

ktDNA that encodes guide DNAs (gDNA), which corrects the mistakes in the mRNA from the maxi-circles

5

Where does the guide DNA correct the mRNA of maxi-circles?

in the mitochondrion of kinetoplasts

6

What does the extent of editing correlate with?

different parasite life cycle stages and the corresponding changes in metabolism

7

What are the mini-circles used for in the lab?

parasite detection and distinguishing different isolates

8

What is the glycosome and what are its features?

-organelle in which glycolysis occurs
-single membrane
-equivalent to peroxisome
-contains glycolytic enzymes

9

What are the four major morphological forms found in kinetoplastids that cause human disease?

trypomastigote, amastigote, promatigote, epimastigote

10

What are the features of the trypomastigote?

-kinetoplast located on posterior end
-flagellum emerges from posterior end from basal body and folds back along the body of the parasite to form the undulating membrane
-free flagellum emerges from anterior end

11

What is the function of the undulating membrane?

increases motility

12

In which direction does the parasite move?

In the same direction as the orientation of the flagellum (forward from anterior end)

13

What are the features of the amastigote?

-sphere-shaped
-no free flagellum = non-motile
-basal body at base of flagellum
-kinetoplast is near the nucleus
-nucleus is at posterior

14

What are the features of the promastigote?

-kinetoplast at anterior end
-free flagellum with no undulating body

15

What are the features of the epimastigote?

-kinetoplast is centrally located, just anterior to nucleus
-flagellum emerges near center from basal body
-forms a shorter undulating membrane (not observable under microscope
-epimastigotes are less motile than trypomastigotes

16

What are the four types of leishmaniasis?

cutaneous, mucosal, visceral, and nodular post-kala-azar dermal

17

Which species of sandflies transmits leishmania in the New World?

Lutzomyia

18

Which species of sandflies transmits leishmania in the Old World?

Phlebotomus

19

How is leishmania spread?

Mostly zoonotic but can also spread through humans
One species can usually infect several different animal species

20

How many sandfly species cause infection in humans?

21 out of 30 species that affect mammals

21

Which Leishmania species causes visceral leishmaniasis in humans and where is it found?

L. donovani. Asia & Africa

22

Which Leishmania species causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans?

L. tropica. Asia, Africa, & Mediterranean

23

Which Leishmania species causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in humans?

L. braziliensis. Central & South America

24

In America, which countries are not affected by leishmaniasis?

Canada, Uruguay, and Chile

25

Define digenetic life cycle

having two hosts, as in Leishmania

26

In which host are promastigotes found?

in the sandfly vector

27

In cutaneous leishmaniasis, where does the amastigote reside in the human body?

intracellularly in macrophages in skin lesions

28

In visceral leishmaniasis, where does the amastigote reside in the human body?

in the mononuclear phagocyte system of blood, liver, lymph nodes, spleen

29

Which stage is the motile stage of leishmaniasis?

promastigote

30

Which stage is the non-motile stage of leishmaniasis?

amastigote

31

How does leishmania move from the sandfly to the host?

through the bite of a female sandfly, via the pharyngeal valve

32

How does the pathogenesis affect the immune cells of the body?

decrease in WBC
increase in monocytes & lymphocytes
elevated IgM & IgG

33

What is the main difference between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis?

cutaneous is self-healing, visceral is often fatal without medication

34

Describe the sores formed in cutaneous leishmaniasis

open sores or nodules on the skin that are usually painless but can become painful if secondarily infected, can cause lymph nodes to swell, center encrusts while satellite papules develop at the periphery

35

When do skin nodules form?

2-8 weeks after the bite

36

How long does it take for ulcers to heal?

2-10 months, sometimes years

37

Can a person develop ulcers after a second infection of cutaneous leishmaniasis?

no, they become immune

38

What happens when a person gets mucocutaneous leishmaniasis?

they get the sore, like in cutaneous leishmaniasis, then the disease metastasizes and spreads to mucoid tissues and can destroy them. may occur months-years after skin lesion

39

Which species causes visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World?

L donovani (Asia & Africa L. infantum (Mediterranean - particularly affects infants)

40

Which species causes visceral leishmaniasis in the New World?

L donovani chagasi

41

What are some symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis and when do they occur?

chronic fever, weight loss, enlarged spleen and liver. can occur months after being bitten

42

Which part of the world has milder symptoms for the disease?

the Middle East

43

Who does L donovani chagasi affect the most?

mostly children in Latin America and North-Eastern Brazil

44

Describe the pathogenesis in visceral leishmaniasis

-from bite on skin, parasite moves rapidly internally
-may sometimes cause skin lesions in children (not common
-go to phagocytic cells of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, intestinal mucosa, etc
-1-4 days later there is chronic fever, chills and sweating. spleen and liver become enlarged
-host becomes susceptible to other infections

45

How can leishmaniasis be diagnosed?

-look for skin lesions in all types
-biopsy lesion (stain with Giemsa dye) most common technique
-can test using PCR but does not say if parasite is alive
-Ab detection (limited value in cutaneous)
-immunoassays

46

How to prevent leishmaniasis?

-vaccinate stray dogs
-suppress small rodent population
-suppress the sandfly
-insecticide, protective clothing, permethrin treated clothes & bed nets. esp at night

47

Have vaccines been effective?

no

48

What are some common terms for visceral Leishmaniasis?

kala-azar and dumdum fever