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Pathophysiology 1 > Hematology/Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (135)
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1

Where does hematopoiesus occur in embryo?

3rd-7th month?

7th month?

at birth?

adulthood?

Embryo: Yolk sac

3rd-7th month: spleen and liver

7th month: Marrow cavity

Birth: Mostly bone marrow, liver/spleen as back-up

Adulthood: Bone marrow (Skull, ribs, sternum, vertebral columns, proximal ends of the femur)

2

Hematopoiesis starts with a ________ stem cell.

Pluripotent

3

This is a bone marrow stem cell that has the potential to become any blood cell.

Hematocytoblast

4

Hematocytoblasts can differentiate into ________ or ________

Myeloid stem cells

Lymphoid stem cells

5

A myeloblast will become a _______, ________, or _________.

A Monoblast will become a ____________ or ________

A erythroblast will become a ___________.


A Megakaryoblast will become a ___________.

Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil

Monocyte or macrophage

Erythrocyte

Megakaryocyte

6

WBC precursors outnumber RBCs _:_

3:1

7

How long is a WBC's life span?

3 days

8

What is the main growth factor for erythroblasts?

Erythropoietin (EPO)

9

Where is EPO formed?

When is it released?

Kidney (by peritue)

When pO2 decreases

10

Once a blast is committed to becoming an erythrocyte, ____-____ also stimulates cell division

GM-CSF

11

What is the main growth factor for thromboblasts?

Thrombopoietin

12

What FOUR "cytokines" work to increase platelet numbers?

Which one is a fever inducer?

GM-CSF
IL-3
IL-6 (fever inducer)
IL-11

13

What THREE "cytokines" work as the main growth factors for myeloblasts?

G-CSF
GM-CSF (increases monocytes = more macrophages)
IL-3

14

What SIX molecules are important to RBC formation?

Iron
EPO
Heme
Hemoglobin
Folate
B12

15

T/F: Folate and B12 are made by the human body

False (they are not)

16

Where is B12 obtained from?

Small Intestines
Stomach

17

What most B12 be bound to in order to be absorbed?

Where is this made?

Where does B12 ultimately end up being absorbed?

Intrinsic factor

Stomach

Ilium

18

T/F: B12/Folate deficiencies cause anemia because of decreased RBC production, not due to absence of iron

True

19

______ anemia is described as larger cells than usual (seen in labs as high MCV)

Macrocytic

20

______ anemia is described as more Hb per cell than normal (seen in labs as high MCH)

Hyperchromic

21

What is the main component of RBCs?

Hemoglobin

22

Typically hemoglobin is made up of 2 _____ and _______ chains.

Alpha
Beta

23

What are SIX hemoglobin variants?

Four α-Hb genes
Two β-Hb genes
Four γ-Hb genes
Two δ-Hb genes
Two ε-Hb genes
Two ζ-Hb genes

24

This Hgb variant begins in the third trimester and can have a normal adult range of 1.5 - 3.5%

Hemoglobin A2 (alpha 2 delta 2)

25

This Hgb variant is also referred to as fetal hemoglobin and can be elevated in patients with sickle cell disease or beta-thalassemia.

Hemoglobin F (alpha 2 gamma 2)

26

This is referred to a large chemical group called a porphyrin, made of 4 rings of porphobilinogen attached to a central iron ion

Heme

27

What are 4 others molecules that use heme?

1. Myoglobin (o2 binding in muscle)
2. NO synthase (vasodilation)
3. Cytochromes
4. Catalase

28

Where is heme primarily synthesized?

Liver and bone marrow

29

During the process of heme formation, glycine binds to SuccCoA (Kreb's Cycle) to form ________, which join together to form _______. Four of these come together to form __________ and then ___ is added to the middle to form heme.

D-ALA

Porphobilinogen

Porphyrin

Fe2+

30

This is an inherited or acquired disease affecting heme production, has multiple subtypes, and is unique for turning feces purple when it is exposed to light.

Porphyria