Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (135)
Where does hematopoiesus occur in embryo?
Embryo: Yolk sac
3rd-7th month: spleen and liver
7th month: Marrow cavity
Birth: Mostly bone marrow, liver/spleen as back-up
Adulthood: Bone marrow (Skull, ribs, sternum, vertebral columns, proximal ends of the femur)
Hematopoiesis starts with a ________ stem cell.
This is a bone marrow stem cell that has the potential to become any blood cell.
Hematocytoblasts can differentiate into ________ or ________
Myeloid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells
A myeloblast will become a _______, ________, or _________.
A Monoblast will become a ____________ or ________
A erythroblast will become a ___________.
A Megakaryoblast will become a ___________.
Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil
Monocyte or macrophage
WBC precursors outnumber RBCs _:_
How long is a WBC's life span?
What is the main growth factor for erythroblasts?
Where is EPO formed?
When is it released?
Kidney (by peritue)
When pO2 decreases
Once a blast is committed to becoming an erythrocyte, ____-____ also stimulates cell division
What is the main growth factor for thromboblasts?
What FOUR "cytokines" work to increase platelet numbers?
Which one is a fever inducer?
IL-6 (fever inducer)
What THREE "cytokines" work as the main growth factors for myeloblasts?
GM-CSF (increases monocytes = more macrophages)
What SIX molecules are important to RBC formation?
T/F: Folate and B12 are made by the human body
False (they are not)
Where is B12 obtained from?
What most B12 be bound to in order to be absorbed?
Where is this made?
Where does B12 ultimately end up being absorbed?
T/F: B12/Folate deficiencies cause anemia because of decreased RBC production, not due to absence of iron
______ anemia is described as larger cells than usual (seen in labs as high MCV)
______ anemia is described as more Hb per cell than normal (seen in labs as high MCH)
What is the main component of RBCs?
Typically hemoglobin is made up of 2 _____ and _______ chains.
What are SIX hemoglobin variants?
Four α-Hb genes
Two β-Hb genes
Four γ-Hb genes
Two δ-Hb genes
Two ε-Hb genes
Two ζ-Hb genes
This Hgb variant begins in the third trimester and can have a normal adult range of 1.5 - 3.5%
Hemoglobin A2 (alpha 2 delta 2)
This Hgb variant is also referred to as fetal hemoglobin and can be elevated in patients with sickle cell disease or beta-thalassemia.
Hemoglobin F (alpha 2 gamma 2)
This is referred to a large chemical group called a porphyrin, made of 4 rings of porphobilinogen attached to a central iron ion
What are 4 others molecules that use heme?
1. Myoglobin (o2 binding in muscle)
2. NO synthase (vasodilation)
Where is heme primarily synthesized?
Liver and bone marrow
During the process of heme formation, glycine binds to SuccCoA (Kreb's Cycle) to form ________, which join together to form _______. Four of these come together to form __________ and then ___ is added to the middle to form heme.