Hematology/Oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (223)
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1

Lifespan of erythrocyte

120 days

2

Anisocytosis

Varying sizes

3

Poikilocytosis

Varying shapes

4

Erythrocytosis

Polycythemia = ↑ Hematocrit

5

Reticulocyte

Immature erythrocyte marker of erythroid proliferation

6

Platelet
Derived from...
What do they contain
Storage

Derived from Megakaryocytes
Dense granules (ADP, Ca) and α granules (vWF, fibrinogen)
1/3 stored in spleen

7

Results of Thrombocytopenia or Platelet Dysfunction

Petechiae

8

vWF receptor

GpIb

9

Fibrinogen receptor

GpIIb/IIIa

10

Leukocyte
Subtypes
Normal range

Granulocytes (Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils)
Mononuclear cells (Monocytes, Lymphocytes)
4000-10000

11

WBC differential

"Neutrophils Like Making Everything Better"
Neutrophils (60%)
Lymphocytes (30%)
Monocytes (7%)
Eosinophils (2%)
Basophils (<1%)

12

Neutrophil
Increased in what state?
Function
Histo
Granules

Bacterial infection
Phagocytic
Multilobed nucleus
Small numerous specific granules (ALP, Collagenase, Lysozyme, Lactoferrin)
Larger less numerous Azurophilic granules are lysosomes (Acid phosphatase, Peroxidase, β-glucuronidase)

13

Hypersegmented polys
Histo
Seen in

5 or more lobes
VitB12/Folate Deficiency

14

Increased Band Cells
What are they?
What do they reflect?

Immature Neutrophils
Increased myeloid proliferation (bacterial infection or CML)

15

Monocyte
Where do they exist?
What does it differentiate into?
Histo

In blood
Macrophages in tissue
Large, kidney shaped nucleus with extensive frosted glass cyto

16

Macrophage
Function
Lifespan
What activates them?
Marker

Phagocytosis, APC via MHCII
Long life in tissues
Activated by γ-Interferon
CD14

17

Eosinophil
Function
Histo
What does it produce?

Defends again helminthic infections. Phagocytic for Ag-Ab complex
Bilobate nucleus. Large eosinophilic granules
Produce Histaminase and Arylsulfatase to limit reaction following mast cell degranulation

18

Causes of eosinophilia

"NAACP"
Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergy, Collagen vascular disease, Parasites

19

Basophil
Function
Histo with function

Mediates allergic reactions
Basophilic granules with heparin (anticoagulant), Histamine (vasodilator), and Leukotrienes (LTD4)

20

Mast Cells
Function
Histo
Physiology
Molecules it releases
What type of reaction is it involved with?
Inhibition?

Allergic reactions in local tissue
Resemble basophils
Can bind Fc portion of IgE to membrane. IgE cross-links upon Ag binding --> degranulation
Releases Histamine, Heparin, Eosinophil chemotactic factors
Type I hypersensitivity reaction
Cromolyn prevents degranulation

21

Dendritic cells
Function
Role Re Immune systems
Expresses...
In skin they are called

Phagocytic APC
Link between innate and adaptive immune systems
MHCII and Fc receptor
Langerhans cells in skin

22

Lymphocyte
Mediates what kind of immunity
Subtypes
Histo

Adaptive immunity
B and T cells
Densely stained nucleus with small amount of cytoplasm

23

B Lymphocyte
What kind of immune response?
Where does it arise from?
Where does it mature?
Where does it migrate to?
What does it differentiate into?
Function
MHC
Markers

Humoral response
Bone marrow
Bone marrow
Migrates to peripheral lymphoid tissues (follicles of lymph nodes, white pulp of spleen, unencapsulated lymphoid tissue)
When encounters Ag, differentiates into Ab producing plasma cell and memory cells
APC via MHCII
CD19 and CD20

24

Plasma Cell
Function
Histo
Pathology

Ab production
Off center nucleus, clock face chromatin, RER, well developed Golgi
Multiple Myeloma

25

T Lymphocyte
What kind of immune response?
Where does it arise from?
Where does it mature?
What does it differentiate into?
Surface marker
Percentage of circulating lymphocytes

Cellular immune response
Bone marrow
Thymus
Tc cells (CD8), Th (CD4), Treg (CD28)
CD3
80%

26

Blood group A

A Ag and B Ab

27

Blood group B

B Ag and A Ab

28

Blood group AB

A and B Ag. No Abs
Universal Recipient of RBCs
Universal Donor of Plasma

29

Blood group O

No Ag. A and B Abs
Universal donor of RBCs
Universal Recipient of Plasma

30

Rh factor

Ag on RBC surface