Flashcards in Endo Deck (199)
Where does it arise from?
Where does it descend to?
Connected to what by what?
Thyroid diverticulum arises from floor of primitive pharynx. Descends into neck. Connected to tongue by thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may persist as pyramidal lobe of thyroid
Normal remnant of thyroglossal duct in tongue
Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site
Presentation of thyroglossal duct cyst
Anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing
Presentation of persistent cervical sinus leading to branchial cleft cyst in lateral neck
Small mobile mass on side of neck that does not move with swallowing
What does the Fetal Adrenal Gland consist of?
Outer adult zone and inner active fetal zone
Adult zone of fetal adrenal gland
Control of activity?
Dormant during early fetal life but begins to secrete cortisol late in gestation
Fetal pituitary and placenta make ACTH and CRH
What is fetal cortisol responsible for?
Fetal lung maturation and surfactant production
Embryological origin of adrenal cortex?
Embryological origin of adrenal medulla?
Neural Crest Cells
Layers of Adrenal Gland w/ Secretory Products
"GFR --> Salt, Sugar, Sex
Deeper you go, the sweeter it gets"
Zona Glomerulosa --> Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata --> Cortisol, Sex Hormones
Zona Reticularis --> Sex Hormones (androgens)
Medulla --> Catecholamines (NE, Epi)
Renin-Angiotensin --> Aldosterone
ACTH, Hypothalamic CRH --> Cortisol, Sex Hormones
ACTH, Hypothalamic CRH --> Sex Hormones (androgens)
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers --> ACh --> Catecholamines (NE, Epi)
Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in adults?
Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in children?
Pheochromocytoma vs Neuroblastoma in terms of clinical presentation
P --> episodic HTN
Adrenal gland venous drainage
L Adrenal --> L Adrenal Vein --> L Renal Vein --> IVC
R Adrenal --> R Adrenal Vein --> IVC
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Source of products?
How are they transported?
Secretes ADH and Oxytocin made in hypothalamus and shipped to PP via neurophysins (carrier proteins)
Derived from neuroectoderm
Anterior Pituitary Gland
"My FLAT PiG"
Melanotropin (MSH), FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, GH
Derived from oral ectoderm (Rathke's Pouch)
Acidophils in the Anterior Pituitary gland secrete
GH and Prolactin
Basophils in the Anterior Pituitary gland secrete
Basophils --> FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
Which hormones share the same α subunit?
FSH, LH, TSH, and hCG
Cell types: Products and Location
Islets of Langerhans
"INsulin is on the INside"
α: Glucagon, Peripheral
β: Insulin, Central
δ: Somatostatin, Interspersed
Mechanism of Insulin Release
↑ Glucose metabolism --> ↑ ATP --> closing of K channels --> depolarization --> V gated Ca channels open --> insulin secretion
Does insulin cross the placenta?
What organs take up glucose independently of insulin?
Brain, RBCs, Intestines, Cornea, Kidney, Liver
Insulin independent in Brain and RBCs