Endo Flashcards Preview

USMLE > Endo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endo Deck (199)
Loading flashcards...
1

Thyroid development
Where does it arise from?
Where does it descend to?
Connected to what by what?

Thyroid diverticulum arises from floor of primitive pharynx. Descends into neck. Connected to tongue by thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may persist as pyramidal lobe of thyroid

2

Foramen Cecum

Normal remnant of thyroglossal duct in tongue

3

Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site

Tongue

4

Presentation of thyroglossal duct cyst

Anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing

5

Presentation of persistent cervical sinus leading to branchial cleft cyst in lateral neck

Small mobile mass on side of neck that does not move with swallowing

6

What does the Fetal Adrenal Gland consist of?

Outer adult zone and inner active fetal zone

7

Adult zone of fetal adrenal gland
Activity?
Control of activity?

Dormant during early fetal life but begins to secrete cortisol late in gestation
Fetal pituitary and placenta make ACTH and CRH

8

What is fetal cortisol responsible for?

Fetal lung maturation and surfactant production

9

Embryological origin of adrenal cortex?

Mesoderm

10

Embryological origin of adrenal medulla?

Neural Crest Cells

11

Layers of Adrenal Gland w/ Secretory Products

"GFR --> Salt, Sugar, Sex
Deeper you go, the sweeter it gets"
Capsule
Zona Glomerulosa --> Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata --> Cortisol, Sex Hormones
Zona Reticularis --> Sex Hormones (androgens)
Medulla --> Catecholamines (NE, Epi)

12

Zona Glomerulosa
Responsive to
Secretory Product

Renin-Angiotensin --> Aldosterone

13

Zona Fasciculata
Responsive to
Secretory Product

ACTH, Hypothalamic CRH --> Cortisol, Sex Hormones

14

Zona Reticularis
Responsive to
Secretory Product

ACTH, Hypothalamic CRH --> Sex Hormones (androgens)

15

Adrenal Medulla
Responsive to
Secretory Product

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers --> ACh --> Catecholamines (NE, Epi)

16

Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in adults?

Pheochromocytoma

17

Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in children?

Neuroblastoma

18

Pheochromocytoma vs Neuroblastoma in terms of clinical presentation

P --> episodic HTN

19

Adrenal gland venous drainage

L Adrenal --> L Adrenal Vein --> L Renal Vein --> IVC
R Adrenal --> R Adrenal Vein --> IVC

20

Posterior Pituitary Gland
AKA
Products
Source of products?
How are they transported?
Embryological origin

Neurohypophysis
Secretes ADH and Oxytocin made in hypothalamus and shipped to PP via neurophysins (carrier proteins)
Derived from neuroectoderm

21

Anterior Pituitary Gland
AKA
Secretory Products
Embryological origin

Adenohypophysis
"My FLAT PiG"
Melanotropin (MSH), FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, GH
Derived from oral ectoderm (Rathke's Pouch)

22

Acidophils in the Anterior Pituitary gland secrete

GH and Prolactin

23

Basophils in the Anterior Pituitary gland secrete

"B FLAT"
Basophils --> FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

24

Which hormones share the same α subunit?

FSH, LH, TSH, and hCG

25

Endocrine Pancreas
Name
Cell types: Products and Location
Embryological origin?

Islets of Langerhans
"INsulin is on the INside"
α: Glucagon, Peripheral
β: Insulin, Central
δ: Somatostatin, Interspersed
Pancreatic Buds

26

Mechanism of Insulin Release

↑ Glucose metabolism --> ↑ ATP --> closing of K channels --> depolarization --> V gated Ca channels open --> insulin secretion

27

Does insulin cross the placenta?

No

28

What organs take up glucose independently of insulin?

"BRICK L"
Brain, RBCs, Intestines, Cornea, Kidney, Liver

29

GLUT1

Insulin independent in Brain and RBCs

30

GLUT2

Bidirectional in β cells, liver, kidney, and small intestine