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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (156)
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1

What makes up the Conducting Zone?

Large airways: Nose, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi
Small airways: Bronchioles and Terminal Bronchioles

2

Function of Conducting Zone

Warms and humidifies air but does not participate in gas exchange
Anatomical Dead Space

3

Cartilage extends until

Bronchi

4

Goblet cells extend until

End of Bronchi

5

Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells extend until
What is the cilia's function?

End of Terminal Bronchioles to beat mucus up and out of lung

6

Smooth muscle in airway wall extends until

terminal bronchioles

7

What makes up the respiratory zone?

= Lung Parenchyma. Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli
participates in gas exchange

8

What kind of cells are in the Respiratory zone?

Cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles, then simple squamous cells up to alveoli

9

Type I Pneumocytes
Percentage of alveolar surface
Kind of cell
Function

97% of alveolar surface. Squamous cells optimal for gas diffusion

10

Type II Pneumocytes
Kind of cell
Function

Clustered cuboidal cells. Secrete surfactant and act as precursors

11

Collapsing Pressure Formula

P = 2 (surface Tension) / Radius

12

When are alveoli most likely to collapse?

On Expiration

13

Function of surfactant

Decreased alveolar surface tension to prevent atelectasis

14

Composition of surfactant

Complex mix of lecithins. The most important of which is dipalmitoylphasphatidylcholine

15

When does surfactant production begin in the fetus? When does it reach mature levels? What indicates maturity?

Begins at week 26. Mature by week 35. Mature when Lecithin/Sphingomyelin > 2

16

Clara Cells:
Location
Appearance
Function

In Terminal and Respiratory Bronchioles. Non ciliated columnar cells with secretory granules. Secrete components of surfactant, degrade toxins and act as reserve cells

17

# of lobes in each lung?

R: 3, L: 2 + Lingula

18

Foreign body most likely to be lodged in

R lung because R mainstem bronchus is wider and more vertical than L

19

Aspirate a peanut:
While upright?
While supine?

Upright: Lower Portion of R Inferior Lobe
Supine: Superior Portion of R Inferior Lobe

20

Relationship bet Pul Artery to the Bronchus?

RALS
Right: Anterior, Left Superior

21

Structures perforating the Diaphragm

I ate 10 eggs at 12
T8: IVC
T10: Vagus and Esophagus
T12: Aorta, Azygous, Thoracic duct (Red White and Blue)

22

What innervates the Diaphragm? Where is pain from the Diaphragm referred?

C3, 4, 5 keeps you alive
Pain referred to shoulder (C5) and Trapezius ridge (C3, C4)

23

Muscles of respiration (quiet and exercise)

Inspiration: Quiet --> Diaphragm, Exercise --> SCM, Scalene, External Intercostals
Expiration: Quiet --> Passive, Exercise --> Obliques (Internal and External), Abdominis (Rectus and Transversus) Internal Intercostals

24

Inspiratory Reserve Vol

Air that can be breathed in after normal inspiration

25

Tidal Vol

500mL. Air that moves into the lung on quiet inspiration

26

Expiratory Reserve Vol

Air that can still be breathed out after a normal expiration

27

Reserve Volume

Air left in lung after maximal expiration

28

Inspiratory capacity

TV + IRV

29

Function Residual Capacity

RV + ERV

30

Vital Capacity

TV + IRV + ERV