Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (156)
What makes up the Conducting Zone?
Large airways: Nose, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi
Small airways: Bronchioles and Terminal Bronchioles
Function of Conducting Zone
Warms and humidifies air but does not participate in gas exchange
Anatomical Dead Space
Cartilage extends until
Goblet cells extend until
End of Bronchi
Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells extend until
What is the cilia's function?
End of Terminal Bronchioles to beat mucus up and out of lung
Smooth muscle in airway wall extends until
What makes up the respiratory zone?
= Lung Parenchyma. Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli
participates in gas exchange
What kind of cells are in the Respiratory zone?
Cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles, then simple squamous cells up to alveoli
Type I Pneumocytes
Percentage of alveolar surface
Kind of cell
97% of alveolar surface. Squamous cells optimal for gas diffusion
Type II Pneumocytes
Kind of cell
Clustered cuboidal cells. Secrete surfactant and act as precursors
Collapsing Pressure Formula
P = 2 (surface Tension) / Radius
When are alveoli most likely to collapse?
Function of surfactant
Decreased alveolar surface tension to prevent atelectasis
Composition of surfactant
Complex mix of lecithins. The most important of which is dipalmitoylphasphatidylcholine
When does surfactant production begin in the fetus? When does it reach mature levels? What indicates maturity?
Begins at week 26. Mature by week 35. Mature when Lecithin/Sphingomyelin > 2
In Terminal and Respiratory Bronchioles. Non ciliated columnar cells with secretory granules. Secrete components of surfactant, degrade toxins and act as reserve cells
# of lobes in each lung?
R: 3, L: 2 + Lingula
Foreign body most likely to be lodged in
R lung because R mainstem bronchus is wider and more vertical than L
Aspirate a peanut:
Upright: Lower Portion of R Inferior Lobe
Supine: Superior Portion of R Inferior Lobe
Relationship bet Pul Artery to the Bronchus?
Right: Anterior, Left Superior
Structures perforating the Diaphragm
I ate 10 eggs at 12
T10: Vagus and Esophagus
T12: Aorta, Azygous, Thoracic duct (Red White and Blue)
What innervates the Diaphragm? Where is pain from the Diaphragm referred?
C3, 4, 5 keeps you alive
Pain referred to shoulder (C5) and Trapezius ridge (C3, C4)
Muscles of respiration (quiet and exercise)
Inspiration: Quiet --> Diaphragm, Exercise --> SCM, Scalene, External Intercostals
Expiration: Quiet --> Passive, Exercise --> Obliques (Internal and External), Abdominis (Rectus and Transversus) Internal Intercostals
Inspiratory Reserve Vol
Air that can be breathed in after normal inspiration
500mL. Air that moves into the lung on quiet inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Vol
Air that can still be breathed out after a normal expiration
Air left in lung after maximal expiration
TV + IRV
Function Residual Capacity
RV + ERV