Hemorrhagic Fevers and Malaria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hemorrhagic Fevers and Malaria Deck (32):
1

What is the vector for Dengue fever?

- Aedes aegypti (mosquito)= DAYTIME biter

2

**** What is the clinical presentation of Dengue fever?

- ISLANDS of WHITE in a SEA of RED.
- retro-orbital pain

3

*** What is the Dengue Hemorrhagic fever Triad?

- plasma leakage
- thrombocytopenia
- hemorrhage

4

What are the clinical manifestations of the FEBRILE PHASE of Dengue fever?

- myalgia
- macular or maculopapular rash
- petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, or hematuria.
- leukopenia
- hyponatremia

5

What are the clinical manifestations of the CRITICAL PHASE of Dengue fever?

- ascites
- pleural effusion
- severe abdominal pain

6

What is Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE) associated with Dengue fever?

- disease-enhancing activity of cross-reacting antibodies elicited by previous infections by heterologous viruses.

7

**** What is Chikengunya virus?

- an epidemic arbovirosis that causes acute febrile illness, rash, and SEVERE relapsing ARTHRALGIA.
*vector is asian tiger mosquito (bright white stripes).

8

What should be on your DDX for chikengunya?

- dengue, malaria, parvovirus B19

9

What are the characteristics of viral hemorrhagic fever?

- bleeding from the skin, mucous membranes, vene-puncture sites, and fever.
*highly contagious and spread by body fluids.

10

What is the main virus that causes hemorrhagic fever?

- Ebola virus
*WEST AFRICA is epicenter.

11

How is Ebola transmitted?

- zoonotic virus (bats most likely) via direct contact through broken skin or unprotected mucous membranes. with an EVD-infected patient's blood or body fluids.

12

What is the classical appearance of Ebola infection?

- deep-set eyes, ghost-like, expressionless face, extreme lethargy along with a stooped walk and extreme cachexia.
- skin sloughing, hair loss, and neuro-psychiatric illness.

13

What happened in 2014 with Ebola?

- WHO declared Ebola a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

14

How does Ebola virus kill?

- hypovolemia and vascular collapse from electrolyte abnormalities, multi-organ failure, septic shock, or DIC.

15

What symptom may also be associated with Ebola?

- hiccups (dry rope in the throat).

16

What laboratory findings will be seen with Ebola?

- thrombocytopenia
- leukopenia
- elevated LFTs (AST greater than ALT)
- electrolyte abnormalities
- prolonged PT and PTT
- proteinuria, increased creatinine

17

How contagious is Ebola?

VERY
*requires biosafety level 4 laboratory.

18

How does Malaria present?

- fever, chills, diarrhea (don't let this one fool you), headaches, dark urine, renal failure, server anemia, and icterus.

19

What causes Malaria?

- plasmodium sp. (parasite) transmitted via mosquito (anopheles).
*vector must bite twice.

20

What 2 areas does malaria affect?

1. LIVER (hepatocytes rupture releasing merozoites).
2. RBCs (rupture releasing gametocytes).

21

What will you see on blood smear with malaria? (always do thick and thin smear)

- ROSETTING (RBCs stick together).
- will see plasmodium species in RBCs as well.

22

What is the fever pattern with malaria?

- comes and goes (intermittent).
*opposed to typhoid fever which is continuous.

23

Do you develop immunity to malaria following infection and treatment?

- it is patchy and incomplete.

24

What are the 3 intra-erythrocytic organisms?

1. plasmodium
2. bartonella
3. babesia

25

Which plasmodium species is the most lethal?

- falciparum

26

What are some other symptoms of malaria?

- pale skin
- severe anemia
- nephrotic syndrome
- splenomegaly or rupture.
- gingival bleeding
- ARDS

27

What drug is used for relapsing malaria?

- primaquine

28

With what disease should you be careful when using primaquine to treat malaria?

- G6PD deficiency causing hemolysis.

29

What is important for malaria prevention?

- mosquito nets and DDT spray

30

What is yellow fever?

- mosquito born hemorrhagic fever causing hepatitis, renal failure, shock, and death.
*found mostly in the tropics (but also seen in philadelphia in the 1700s).

31

Is yellow fever seen in Asia?

NO

32

Is there a vaccine for yellow fever?

YES