Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Smallpox and Other Rare Skin Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Smallpox and Other Rare Skin Infections Deck (24):
1

What is CUTANEOUS larva migrans?

- parasitic infection caused by the hookworm ankylostoma braziliensis.
- will see MIGRATORY PRURITIC, SERPINGINOUS rash (creeping eruption)

2

With what syndrome is cutaneous larva migrans associated?

- Loeffler syndrome= dry cough and wheezing due to hypersensitivity reaction during the migration of parasites through lungs (pulmonary eosinophilia).

3

How do you treat cutaneous larva migrans?

- Stibugluconate, Ivermectin, or miltefosine

4

Where is cutaneous larva migrans and Leishmaniasis found?

- Mediterranian, Middle East, and Africa

5

*** What is the vector for Leishmaniasis?

- SANDFLIES

6

What is diagnostic of Leishmaniasis?

- AMASTIGOTES (intracellular form) seen within macrophages of aspirates from spleen, liver, or bone marrow.

7

What is black fever or kala-azar Leishmaniasis?

- VISCERAL Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovans.
- will see FEVER, scattered hyperpigmented spots, PANCYTOPENIA due to the bone marrow being affected, and HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY.

8

How do you treat black fever or kala-azar Leishmaniasis?

- Amphotericin B

9

What is Furuncular Myiasis?

- parasitic infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots) in pts who have traveled to BELIZE.
*Ocular myiasis is larva in the eye.

10

What is Tungiasis?

- infection with the female sand flea Tunga penetrans found in the tropical parts of Africa, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and India

11

With what is reactivation leishmaniasis associated?

- HIV

12

** What causes leprosy (Hanson's disease)?

- Mycobacterium leprae carried by ARMADILLOS

13

What is important to know about Mycobacterium leprae?

- thrives in cool temperatures (predilection for extremities).
- acid fast bacteria (mycolic acid) stained with CARBOL FUCHSIN.

14

What are the 2 types of clinical presentation of leprosy (Hanson's disease)?

1. TUBERCULIN response= Th1 response with cell mediated immunity (macrophages contain bacteria).
2. LEPROMATOUS response= Th2 mediated-humoral response (macrophages unable to contain bacteria). Human to Human transmission.

15

What are the symptoms of the TUBERCULIN response of leprosy?

- demaracted hairless lesions on skin.
*positive Lepromin skin test deomonstrates good cell mediated response.

16

What are the symptoms of the LEPROMATOUS response of leprosy?

- poorly demarcated raised lesions on extensor surfaces of extremities.
- facial deformity (LEONINE FACIES).

17

How do you treat the TUBERCULIN form of Mycobacterium leporae (Hanson's disease)?

- Dapsone + Rifampin

18

How do you treat the LEPROMATOUS form of Mycobacterium leporae (Hanson's disease)?

- Dapsone + Rifampin + Clofazimine (taken for 2 years)

19

What is Smallpox?

- infectious disease caused by the virus Variola major.
- will see fever, headache, chills, and backache followed by eruption of papular rash that becomes pustular and then scabs.
*pt has lifelong immunity after scabs fall off.

20

How can you distinguish smallpox from chickenpox (varicella)?

- you will see the same phase of evolution of rash throughout the entire body with smallpox.

21

What is the leading infectious cause of blindness now worldwide?

- chlamydia trachomatis

22

What is cowpox?

- infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus transmitted by cats.
- becomes an ulcerated nodule with black eschar.

23

Is there a vaccine for smallpox?

YES
*will see Jennerian pustule if successful

24

Is smallpox erradicated?

YES in 1980, but we learn it bc it can be used as bioterrorism weapon.