Flashcards in Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Smallpox and Other Rare Skin Infections Deck (24):
What is CUTANEOUS larva migrans?
- parasitic infection caused by the hookworm ankylostoma braziliensis.
- will see MIGRATORY PRURITIC, SERPINGINOUS rash (creeping eruption)
With what syndrome is cutaneous larva migrans associated?
- Loeffler syndrome= dry cough and wheezing due to hypersensitivity reaction during the migration of parasites through lungs (pulmonary eosinophilia).
How do you treat cutaneous larva migrans?
- Stibugluconate, Ivermectin, or miltefosine
Where is cutaneous larva migrans and Leishmaniasis found?
- Mediterranian, Middle East, and Africa
*** What is the vector for Leishmaniasis?
What is diagnostic of Leishmaniasis?
- AMASTIGOTES (intracellular form) seen within macrophages of aspirates from spleen, liver, or bone marrow.
What is black fever or kala-azar Leishmaniasis?
- VISCERAL Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovans.
- will see FEVER, scattered hyperpigmented spots, PANCYTOPENIA due to the bone marrow being affected, and HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY.
How do you treat black fever or kala-azar Leishmaniasis?
- Amphotericin B
What is Furuncular Myiasis?
- parasitic infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots) in pts who have traveled to BELIZE.
*Ocular myiasis is larva in the eye.
What is Tungiasis?
- infection with the female sand flea Tunga penetrans found in the tropical parts of Africa, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and India
With what is reactivation leishmaniasis associated?
** What causes leprosy (Hanson's disease)?
- Mycobacterium leprae carried by ARMADILLOS
What is important to know about Mycobacterium leprae?
- thrives in cool temperatures (predilection for extremities).
- acid fast bacteria (mycolic acid) stained with CARBOL FUCHSIN.
What are the 2 types of clinical presentation of leprosy (Hanson's disease)?
1. TUBERCULIN response= Th1 response with cell mediated immunity (macrophages contain bacteria).
2. LEPROMATOUS response= Th2 mediated-humoral response (macrophages unable to contain bacteria). Human to Human transmission.
What are the symptoms of the TUBERCULIN response of leprosy?
- demaracted hairless lesions on skin.
*positive Lepromin skin test deomonstrates good cell mediated response.
What are the symptoms of the LEPROMATOUS response of leprosy?
- poorly demarcated raised lesions on extensor surfaces of extremities.
- facial deformity (LEONINE FACIES).
How do you treat the TUBERCULIN form of Mycobacterium leporae (Hanson's disease)?
- Dapsone + Rifampin
How do you treat the LEPROMATOUS form of Mycobacterium leporae (Hanson's disease)?
- Dapsone + Rifampin + Clofazimine (taken for 2 years)
What is Smallpox?
- infectious disease caused by the virus Variola major.
- will see fever, headache, chills, and backache followed by eruption of papular rash that becomes pustular and then scabs.
*pt has lifelong immunity after scabs fall off.
How can you distinguish smallpox from chickenpox (varicella)?
- you will see the same phase of evolution of rash throughout the entire body with smallpox.
What is the leading infectious cause of blindness now worldwide?
- chlamydia trachomatis
What is cowpox?
- infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus transmitted by cats.
- becomes an ulcerated nodule with black eschar.
Is there a vaccine for smallpox?
*will see Jennerian pustule if successful