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Flashcards in Herbalism and EMR Deck (13)
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1

Echinacea?

-freshly pressed juice ingestion within 24hrs of onset that increase immune function to decrease duration and intensity of common cold symptoms
-increase phagocytosis, activate NK cells, decrease IL-6/8, anti-inflammatory properties via decrease in COX
-AE - unpleasant taste, GI symptoms, headache, dizziness

2

Ephedra?

-ephedrine+pseudoephedrine mixture that is used to tx bronchitis, asthma and as a CNS stimulant, also promotes weight loss
-it is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic that promotes NE release from nerve endings
-AE -insomnia, dizziness, anorexia, palpitations, tachycardia, flushing and urinary retention
-elevated doses causes increased BP, cardiac arrhythmias and toxic psychosis [do not use in pts with cardiac arrhythmias, hyperthyroidism, CHF, HTN, glaucoma, pregnancy, DM, bulimia and anxiety]

3

Garlic?

-organic thiosulfinate (primary constituent) that forms in to allicin from alliin by stomach acid
-Allicin decreases HMG-CoA as well as platelet aggregation (via decrease in thromboxane), elevated NO, fibronolytics, and decreased crcinogenic activation
-decrease cholesterol and BP
-AE - allergic rxn, hypotension, nausea, drug interaction with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs
-pts taking this drug present with garlicy breath, body odor and contact dermatitis

4

Ginkgo?

-flavone glycosides and terpenoids [active constituents]
-antioxidant property and increase NO formation
-decreases blood viscosity, increases vasodilation and increases muscarinic and decreases B-adrenergic effects
-Uses - intermittent claudication, cerebral insufficiency, dementia/cognitive impairment, pretreatment in coronary artery bypass graph
-AE - epileptogenic, insomnia, headache, anxiety, and GI disturbance
-possible drug interactions with anticoagulants and platelets

5

Ginseng?

-Ginsenoisides (active component)
-improve mental and physical performance by increasing levels of Ach, 5HT, NE and DA
-AE - mastalgia, vaginal bleeding due to estrogenic effects, insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, HTN
-drug interactions with anticoagulants, hypoglycemics, antihypertensives, psychiatric medications

6

Milk Thistle?

-Silymarin (active ingredient)
-cytoprotective effect against hepatic injury by alcohol, acetaminophen and amanita mushroom poisoning
-decreased lipid peroxidation, scavenges free radicals, increased superoxide dismutase, increased hepatic RNA polymerase activity
-AE - loose stools (rare), but other than that, no significant drug interaction

7

St. John's Wort?

-Hypericin and hyperforin [active ingredients]
-Hyperforin decreases serotonergic reuptake (similar to SSRI and TCA)
-used to treat mild to moderate depression
-Hypericin may have some antiviral and anticancer effect
-AE - mild GI disturbance and photosensitivity
-drug interaction with pts who are on MAOI, SSRI
-It also increases cytochrome P450 thereby decreasing effectiveness of other drugs

8

Saw Palmetto?

-Photosterols, aliphatic alcohols, polyprenes, flavonoids [active constituents]
-decreased 5a-reductase and antagonistic effects at androgen receptors
-used to treat BPH
-AE - GI distress and pain, decreased libido, HTN, headache

9

Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone)?

-cofactor for mitochondrial electron transport
-its reduced form is ubiquinol and may function as an antioxidant
-it is associated with a small decrease in BP therefore can be used to treat CHF, acute MI, CAD, and slow PD progression
-AE - GI symptoms, rash, irritability, decreased warfarin effects, thrombocytopenia, headache, dizziness

10

Glucosamine?

-nitrogen containing sugar [major component of glycosaminoglycans] which is an important ingredient of CT such as in cartilage
-primarily used for Rx of OA to decrease pain
-AE - allergy, GI symptoms of diarrhea and nausea, increased INR in pts with warfarin

11

Melatonin?

-N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine -- serotonin derivative produced by pineal gland
-improved sleep onset, duration and quality [helps with jet lag and insomnia]
-AE - sedation, following-day drowsiness
-decrease midcycle LH surge, decrease sperm quality, contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, decreased prothrombin time

12

Black Cohosh (actaea racemosa)?

-extract from these plants in eastern north america possesses analgesic, sedative and anti-inflammatory properties
-used to treat symptoms of menopause and premenstrual tnesion
-physiological effects may be due to binding of black cohosh to serotonin receptors
-AE - dizziness, headache, seizures, GI disturbance, liver damage

13

KAVA?

-Kavalactones [active ingredients]
-roots of the plant are used to produce a drink with sedative properties (relaxation properties)
-tx short-term social anxiety
-AE - liver toxicity due to use of stems and leaves, malnutrition, weight loss, renal dysfunction, rash and hematological abnormalities