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Flashcards in Herbs and the GI Deck (99)
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1

Tones or benefits the function of the stomach; increases appetite:

Stomachic

2

Tastes bitter; stimulates digestion:

Bitters

3

Prevents formation of/relieves gas:

Carminative

4

Facilitates bowel movement:

Laxative

5

Evacuates the colon:

Purgative
Cathartic

6

Causes vomiting:

Emetic

7

Relieves nausea; stops vomiting:

Antiemetic

8

Kills parasitic worms in the GI tract:

Antihelminthic

9

Digestive processes in the mouth:

* Mastication
* Saliva - amylase
* Taste - stimulates brain reflex to trigger digestion

10

Digestive processes in the stomach:

* Protein digestion - HCl & pepsin
* Gastrin - stimulates HCl prodxn
* Gustducin - transduces bitter/sweet/umami
* Ghrelin - inc hunger/motility/mucosal cell proliferation; mucosal AI
* Churns food

11

Digestive processes in the duodenum:

* CCK - prodxn/release of pancreatic enzymes/bile d/t fat & amino acids
* Secretin - dec. gastric emptying; stim pancreatic juices
* GIP - dec. gastric emptying

12

Digestive processes of the liver:
Gall bladder:

Liver - produces bile -> emulsifies fat
Gall bladder - stores & excretes bile

13

Digestive processes of the pancreas:

* H2CO3 - Neutralizes acids
* Enzymes - lipase, nuclease, phospholipase, trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, amylase, sterol esterase.

14

Digestive processes of the intestines:

* Assimilation (absorption?)
* Elimination

15

Where do bitters work? How?

In the mouth; Receptors on the tongue / oral mucosa stimulate the production of saliva, transmit signals to the brain -> stimulates digestive processes through vagal efferents

16

Bitters stimulate what processes?

* Inc ghrelin (inc hunger, satiety cycle)
* Inc CCK (bile secretion, pancreatic enzymes)
* Stimulates motility
* Anti-inflammatory to GI mucosa
* Stimulates proliferation of mucosal cells

17

What is the "quintessential" digestive bitter:

Gentiana lutea (gentian)

18

Name some alterative bitters:

* Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)
* Cynara scolymus (artichoke)
* Rumex crispus (yellow dock)
* Mahonia sp (Oregon grape)

19

Name some bitter carminatives:

* Matricaria recutita (chamomile)
* Angelica archangelica (angelica)

20

Gentian - actions:

* Bitter (stim digestion)
* Analgesic
* Anti-inflammatory
* Cholagogue

21

Gentian constituents:

* Secoiridoid glycosides (amarogentin, gentiopicrin, gentiopicroside, swertiamarin)

22

Citrus peel constituents:

* Flavonoid glycosides (neohesperidin, naringin)
* Non-bitter flavonoids (hesperidin, rutoside, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeritin)
* Essential oil (limonene)
* Pectins
* Furanocoumarins
* Phenols (polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxycinnamates)

23

Citrus peel is classically used as a bitter tonic for:

dyspepsia
loss of appetite

24

Name some aromatic bitters:

* Zingiber officinale (ginger)
* Citrus sinensis (sweet orange)
* Citrus aurantium (bitter orange)
* Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom)

25

Bitter orange contains ____________ (mainly bergapten) that are ______________ in fair-skinned people.

furanocoumarins
photosensitizing
not found in sweet orange

26

D-limonene is used in the tx of ____________ because it is a solvent of _____________.
It is also used to treat ________ because it promotes __________.

gallstones
cholesterol

GERD
peristalsis

27

Citrus peel - energetics:

sour
bitter
dry
cool or warm (depends on individual)

28

Bitters - indications:

* dyspepsia
* intestinal atony
* hypochlorhydria
* malabsorption

29

Bitters - contraindications:

* hyperchlorhydria
* acute gastritis
* acute diarrhea
* acute IBD flare
* acute peptic ulcer
* Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
* concomitant acid blocker drug therapy

30

Carminative herbs have mild _____________ effects, largely due to the ______________ they contain.

antispasmodic
volatile oils