Flashcards in Herpes Viruses Deck (38)
What are the three subclasses of herpes virus and which viruses are in each?
What are the latency reservoirs for the alpha herpes viruses?
HSV1 - Trigeminal Ganglion
HSV2 - Sacral Sensor Ganglion
VZV - Dorsal Root Ganglion
What are the characteristic diseases for the alpha herpes viruses?
HSV1 - Oral lesions
HSV2 - Genital lesions
VZV - Chickenpox (primary), Zoster (Reactivation)
What are the latency reservoirs for the beta herpes viruses?
CMV - CD34+ myeloid cells
HHV6&7 - B cells/myeloid progenitor cells/T cells
What are the characteristic diseases for the beta herpes viruses?
CMV - Primary: mild disease or Mononucleosis-like syndrome. Immune Compromised: systemic disease with end organ damage
HHV6&7 - Infant: Roseola. Immune Compromised: End organ damage like encephalitis, pneumonitis
What are the latency reservoirs for the gamma herpes viruses?
EBV - B cells
KSHV (HHV8) - B cells
What are the characteristic diseases for the gamma herpes viruses?
EBV - Mononucleosis, EBV associated malignancies
KSHV(HHV8) - Karposi's sarcoma, B-cell Lymphomas
How stable are herpes viruses, and how do they spread?
Labile and easy to decontaminate or kill in the environment = spread requires close contact.
What is the genetic and protein structure of herpes viruses?
Spherical, enveloped visions
DNA surrounded by tegument (viral proteins with some RNAs and cellular proteins used to reprogram newly infected host cell.)
In the host cell, the genome is delivered to the NUCLEUS and forms an episome (circle).
Where does the herpes virus gain its envelope from, and what properties does the envelope provide?
Envelope derived from host Golgi, coated with 10-12 surface glycoproteins important for:
and immune evasion.
What are the three stages of viral gene expression during lytic replication?
1st immediate early (IE) genes-set up environment conducive for viral replication and needed for expression of E and L genes.
2nd Early (E) genes-encode replication enzymes and nonstructural viral proteins.
3rd Late (L) genes- encode viral structural proteins needed for packaging a new virion and egress from infected cell.
Where in the cell does herpes DNA replication occur, what proteins are involved, and what diagnostic feature does this produce?
Herpesvirus DNA replication occurs in the nucleus using viral-encoded DNA polymerase and accessory viral proteins. Encapsidation of genome occurs in the nucleus. Thus, intranuclear inclusions (accumulated viral capsid proteins) are often diagnostic on histopathology for herpesvirus infection.
What are differences between primary and reactivation herpes infections common to all herpes viruses?
Most primary infections have a clinical presentation different than the disease associated with reactivation.
Primary infection results in LATENT infection in specific cells in the host.
Reactivation can be subclinical (shedding) or cause clinical disease. Both may result in spread of infection to new hosts.
Disease from reactivation is usually less severe than disease from initial infection.
Herpesvirus infection is more severe in patients with Tcell defects.
Describe latency in all herpesviruses
Small subset of viral genes expressed but no infectious particles produced
What is the purpose of viral glycoproteins?
1. mediate cellular tropism (determines which cells the virus enters)
2. Targets of the adaptive immune response
What do we use Acyclovir for?
What do we use gancyclovir for mainly?
How does Acyclovir work?
Must have a thymidine kinase (betas dont)
Indicative of Herpesviral infection
HSV, VZV: Cowdry type A
CMV: owl eyes
Intranuclear and intracytoplasmic :
Host immune response to herpesvirus
Innate immune response: INF/cytokine production and NK cell activities
Adaptive immune response: neutralizing Ab, CD4+ and CD8+ t-cell functions
How does herpesvirus evade the innate immune response?
Block induction of type I interferons and other cytokines
Block dendritic cell maturation
Prevent complement activation
alter NK cell functions
How does herpesvirus evade the adaptive immune response?
Cytokine and chemokine mimetics and decoy receptors
Fc receptor binding proteins
Interfere with antigen presenting to t cells
What are two important complications of HSV1 int he normal host?
Complications of genital herpes
HSV in the immunocompromised host
Severe local disease (oral or genital)
Important role for antiviral
What's the diagnostic test of choice for HSV?
How is VZV transmitted and what disease does it cause?
Through the air: respiratory secretions
Goes to lymph node, blood, liver, spleen, skin
What population do we really worry about CMV with and give prophylaxis to?
Diagnostic tests for CMV