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Flashcards in * High-Yield * Deck (156):
1

Reason benzos are used cautiously in pregnancy

Ability to cross the placenta

2

Captopril and enalapril (-OPRIL ending) are

ACE inhibitors

3

Selective B1 Receptor blockers that may be useful in treating cardiac conditions in patients with asthma

Acebutolol, atenolol, esmolol, metoprolol

4

Diuretic used as prophylactic for mountain sickness and glaucoma

Acetazolamide

5

DOC for herpes and its MOA

Acyclovir; activated by viral thymidine kinase, results in inhibition of viral DNA replication

6

SE of long term (>5 days) corticosteroid therapy and remedy

Adrenal suppression and weaning slowly, respectively

7

Agents that inhibits xanthine oxidases and used to treat chronic gout

Allopurinol, febuxostat

8

These agents decrease blood flow or increase blood pressure, are local decongestant, and used in therapy of spinal shock (temporary maintenance of blood pressure which may help maintain perfusion)

Alpha1 agonists

9

Acetaminophen only has what activity?

Antipyretic and analgesic activity

10

Heparin (PTT) increases activity of

Antithrombin 3

11

Losartan and valsartan block

AT1 receptors

12

Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers

Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol

13

Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia

Atropine and other anti-muscarinic agents

14

Treat manifestations of Parkinson's disease and EPS

Benztropine, trihexyphenidyl

15

Reduce heart rate, contractility, and O2 demand

Beta-blockers

16

This agent has greater affinity for muscarinic receptors and used for postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention

Bethanechol

17

Blows DNA (breaks DNA strands), limiting SE is pulmonary fibrosis


Bleomycin


18

MOA action of cromolyn

Blocks opening of Cl channels to prevent mast cell degranulation

19

SE of beta blockers

Bradycardia, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, decrease in HDL, and increase in Triglycerols (TG)

20

Mediator of tissue pain, edema, inactivated by ACE, and may be a contributing factor to the development of angioedema

Bradykinin

21

Dopamine agonist used in hyperprolactinemia

Bromocriptine

22

Unicyclic antidepressant least likely to affect sexual performance, used for management of nicotine withdrawal, SE's include dizziness, dry mouth, aggravation of psychosis, and seizures

Bupropion

23

Product of proinsulin cleavage used to assess insulin production

C-peptide

24

Used intranasally and decreases bone resorption

Calcitonin (salmon prep)

25

An electrolyte that is lost in the urine by acute treatment with loop diuretics but can be retained by thiazides

Calcium

26

Drug causing depletion of substance P (vasodilator)

Capsaicin

27

DOC for N. gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

28

Readily detected markers that may assist in diagnosis of the cause of a drug overdose include

Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and pupillary responses

29

Antipsychotics having the strongest autonomic effects

Chlorpromazine or Thioridazine

30

H2 blocker that causes the most interactions with other drugs

Cimetidine

31

Agent with greater affinity to 5HT2A receptor; reserved for refractory schizophrenia, and can cause weight gain and agranulocytosis

Clozapine

32

Anti-psychotics shown not to cause tardive dyskinesia

Clozapine and quetiapine

33

Moderate opioid agonists

Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone

34

Side Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB)

Constipation, edema, and headache


35

SE of niacin

Cutaneous flush

36

Agent for pernicious anemia

Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)

37

DOC for malignant hyperthermia by acting on the sarcoplasmic reticulum or skeletal muscle

Dantrolene

38

DOC for malignant hyperthermia that may be caused by use of halogenated anesthetics

Dantrolene

39

Synthetic analog of ADH hormone used for diabetes insipidus and nocturnal enuresis

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

40

May protect against doxorubicin cardio-toxicity by chelating iron

Dexrazoxane

41

Non-steroidal estrogen agonist causes clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in daughters of women who used it during pregnancy

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

42

Hormone inhibiting prolactin release

Dopamine

43

Antipsychotics, reserpine at high doses, and MPTP (by-product of illicit meperidine analog) and is irreversible

Drug induced Parkinsonism

44

Side effect associated with ACEI but not ARBs

Dry cough

45

SEs of ACE inhibitors

Dry cough, hyperkalemia

46

Toxicity of cholinergics

DUMBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, salivation, and sweating)

47

Site of action of thiazide diuretics

Early distal convoluted tubule

48

Ability of drug to produce the maximal biologic effect

Efficacy

49

Side effects occuring in antipsychotics that block dopamine

EPS, hyperprolactinemia, amennorrhea, galactorrhea, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

50

Agent used for anemias associated with renal failure

Erythropoietin

51

Agent that is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS)

Ethanol

52

These agents are CNS depressants

Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines

53

Drugs of choice for absence seizures

Ethosuximide and valproic acid

54

Opioid associated with awareness during surgery and post-operative recall, but still used for high-risk cardiovascular surgeries

Fentanyl

55

Opioid available trans-dermally

Fentanyl

56

2nd generation antihistamines

Fexofenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine

57

Antidote used for benzodiazepine toxicity

Flumazenil

58

Antidote to benzodiazepine overdose (antagonist that reverses the CNS effects)

Flumazenil

59

Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, it accelerates recovery from benzodiazepine overdose

Flumazenil

60

"Date rape drug"

Flunitrazepam (rohypnol)

61

Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does NOT reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy

Folic acid

62

Anti-seizure drugs used also for pain of neuropathic orgin

Gabapentin

63

Methyldopa is contraindicated in

Geriatrics due to its CNS (depression) effects

64

SE of Aspirin

GI bleeding

65

SE of phenytoin

Gingival hyperplasia, nystagmus, diplopia and ataxia

66

Side effects of spironolactone

Gynecomastia, hyperkalemia, and impotence

67

Time it takes for amount of drug to fall to half of its value, constant in first order kinetics (majority of drugs)

Half-life (T1/2)

68

Some side effects of corticosteroids

Hyperglycemia, Osteopenia, impaired wound healing, inc. risk of infection, inc. appetite, HTN, edema, PUD, euphoria, psychosis

69

Alpha 1 agonist toxicity

Hypertension

70

Side effects of loop (furosemide) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and ototoxicity

71

Side effects of thiazide (HCTZ) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia

72

TCA used in chronic pain, enuresis, and OCD

Imipramine

73

Agent used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus

Indomethacin

74

Barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin all do this

Induce CYP450

75

Cimetidine, ketoconazole, isoniazid, and grapefruit all do this

Inhibit CYP450

76

How drug or foods (grapefruit juice) increase statin effect

Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4

77

MOA of sulfonamides

Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase

78

Mechanism of action of amiloride

Inhibit epithelial sodium channels in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct

79

MOA of sildenafil (Viagra)

Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, enhancing effects of nitric oxide-activated increases in cGMP

80

Propylthiouracil (PTU) mechanism of action

Inhibits thyroid peroxidase

81

Mechanism of action (MOA) utilizes transmembrane receptors that have intrinsic enzymatic activity

Insulin, EGF, TGFbeta, PDGF, ANP

82

Muscarinic antagonist used in COPD

Ipratropium, tiotropium

83

Bronchodilation in asthma and COPD

Ipratropium, tiotropium

84

Monitoring parameter to obtain before initiation of STATINS

LFT's

85

DOC for management of acute Ventricular arrhythmias

Lidocaine

86

Fibrates (gemfibrozil) increase activity of

Lipoprotein lipase

87

DOC for bipolar affective disorder

Lithium

88

Patients being treated with lithium, who are dehydrated, or taking diuretics concurrently, could develop

Lithium toxicity, lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

89

Ergot alkaloid used as an illicit drug

LSD

90

SE of hydralazine

Lupus-like syndrome

91

SE of procainamide

Lupus-like syndrome

92

MOA of thrombolytics

Lyse thrombi by catalyzing the formation of plasmin which binds fibrin

93

Diuretic used to reduce intracranial pressure

Mannitol

94

THC is active ingredient, SE's include impairment of judgment, and reflexes, decreases in blood pressure and psychomotor performance occur

Marijuana

95

Anemia caused by trimethoprim

Megaloblastic anemia

96

Opioid used in the management of withdrawal states

Methadone

97

DOC for giardia, bacterial vaginosis, pseudomembranous colitis, and trichomonas

Metronidazole

98

System that increases in activity with chronic exposure and may contribute to tolerance

Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system MEOS

99

Tolerance to all effects of opioid agonists can develop except

Miosis, convulsions and constipation

100

Opioid that can be given PO, by epidural, and IV, which helps to relieve the dyspnea of pulmonary edema

Morphine

101

Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity

N-acetylcysteine

102

Antidote used for acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity

N-acetylcysteine

103

Opioid antagonist that is given IV and had short DOA

Naloxone

104

This agent may cause more severe, rapid and intense symptoms (abstinence syndrome) to a recovering addict

Naloxone

105

Antidote used for opioid toxicity

Naloxone (IV), naltrexone (PO)

106

Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs

Naltrexone

107

Amino acid derivative for treatment of Type II diabetes

Nateglinide

108

Decreases liver triglycerol synthesis

Niacin

109

Long acting insulin

NPH insulin

110

Anti-emetics used in association with anti-cancer drugs that are 5-HT3 (serotonin receptor subtype ) antagonist

Odansetron, granisetron, dolasetron, palonosetron

111

Common side effect of Rifampin

Orange urine discoloration

112

SE of alpha blockers

Orthostatic hypotension (especially with first dose) and reflex tachycardia

113

DOC for influenza A and B

Oseltamivir or Zanamivir

114

Drug that causes contraction of the uterus

Oxytocin

115

Side effects of acetazolamide

Paresthesias, alkalization of the urine (which may ppt. Ca salts), hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and encephalopathy in patients with hepatic impairment

116

Treatments available for nicotine addiction

Patches, gum, nasal spray, psychotherapy, and bupropion

117

The most common neurologic abnormality in chronic alcoholics

Peripheral neuropathy (also excessive alcohol use is associated with HTN, anemia, and MI)

118

Used in pediatrics to maintain patency of ductus arteriosis

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

119

Prostaglandin used as 2nd line treatment of erectile dysfunction

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

120

Alpha 1selective blockers

Prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin (-AZOSIN ending)

121

Selective Alpha 1 blocker used for hypertension, BPH, may cause first dose orthostatic hypotension

Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin

122

ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in

pregnancy and with hyperkalemia

123

Activation of these receptors close Ca2+ ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release and pain transmission

Presynaptic mu, delta, and kappa receptors

124

Limiting side effect of Quinidine

Prolongs QT interval

125

Thioamide less likely to cross placenta, inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 in high doses, and indicated for pregnant women in 1st trimester

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

126

Prostaglandins that cause abortions

Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol), PGE2, and PGF2alpha

127

Antidote to reverse actions of heparin

Protamine sulfate

128

HIV antiviral class known to have severe drug interactions by causing inhibition of metabolism

Protease inhibitors

129

Thrombolytics are used for

Pulmonary embolism and DVT

130

MOA of nitrates

Relax vascular smooth muscle, at low doses dilate veins and at high doses dilate arterioles

131

DMARDs are slow acting drugs for

Rheumatic disease

132

DOC for RSV

Ribavirin

133

Meningitis prophylaxis in exposed patients

Rifampin

134

Treatment for TB patients (think RIPE)

Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol

135

Treatment of motion sickness

Scopolamine

136

Technique used to diagnose perianal itching, and the drug used to treat it

Scotch tape technique
and mebendazole

137

Distribution of histamine receptors H1, H2, and H3

Smooth muscle and mast cells; stomach, heart, and mast cells; nerve endings, CNS respectively

138

MOA of class I A (eg. Procainamide), class IB (eg. Lidocaine), and class IC (eg. Flecainide) antiarrhythmics

Sodium channel blockers

139

Diuretic used to antagonize aldosterone receptors

Spironolactone

140

Diuretic used to treat primary aldosteronism

Spironolactone, eplerenone

141

Mechanism of action (MOA) utilizes intracellular receptors

Steroid and hormones

142

MOA and effect of nitric oxide

Stimulates cGMP which leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation

143

Anti-bacterials that cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients

Sulfonamides

144

A1a-selective blocker used for BPH

Tamsulosin (Flomax)

145

Converted to more active form DHT by 5 alpha-reductase

Testosterone

146

Site of action of loop diuretics

Thick ascending limb

147

This beta blocker lacks local anesthetic activity (decreases protective reflexes and increases the risk of corneal ulceration) and used in treating glaucoma

Timolol

148

These Beta blockers decrease aqueous secretion

Timolol (nonselective), betaxolol (selective)

149

Life threatening cardiac event that prolong QT leads to

Torsades de pointes

150

SE of lithium

Tremor, sedation, ataxia, aphasia, thyroid enlargement, and reversible diabetes insipidus

151

Drug of choice for myoclonic seizures

Valproic acid

152

Drugs of choice for generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures

Valproic acid, Phenytoin and Carbamazepine

153

Drug used for MRSA

Vancomycin

154

Antidote used for warfarin toxicity

Vitamin K and Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

155

Mnemonic for beta receptors

You have 1 heart (Beta 1) and 2 lungs (Beta 2)

156

Inhibitor of lipoxygenase

Zileuton