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Flashcards in High Yield Anatomy Deck (304):
1

Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column

Kyphosis

2

Lateral deviation of vertebral column

Scoliosis

3

Major feature of cervical vertebrae

Transverse foramina

4

Vertebra located at level of iliac crest

L4

5

Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae

Ligamentum flavum

6

Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column

Anterior longitudinal

7

Ligament affected by whiplash injury

Anterior longitudinal

8

Ligament which limits skull rotation

Alar

9

Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area

Pedicle

10

Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area

Pars interarticularis, Lamina

11

Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae

Posterior

12

Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens

Transverse ligament of
atlas (part of cruciate)

13

Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc

L4-5

14

Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc

L5

15

Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6

C6

16

Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation

sixth

17

Vertebral level of lumbar puncture

L4

18

Innervation of suboccipital muscles

Suboccipital nerve

19

Roof of suboccipital triangle

Semispinalis capitis,

20

Floor of suboccipital triangle

Posterior arch of atlas;
posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

21

Major vessel within suboccipital triangle

Vertebral artery

22

Synonym for dorsal ramus of C2

Greater occipital nerve

23

Inferior extent of dura-arachnoid sac

SV2

24

Inferior extent of spinal cord

LV2

25

Location of internal vertebral plexus

Epidural space

26

Most frequently fractured bone of body

Clavicle

27

Most frequently dislocated carpal bone

Lunate

28

Most frequently fracture carpal bone

Scaphoid

29

Name of fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork” appearance

Colle’s fracture

30

Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus

Axillary

31

Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle

Ulnar

32

Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus

Radial

33

Nerve injured in wrist drop

Radial

34

Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint

Deltoid

35

Muscles innervated by axillary nerve

Deltoid and teres minor

36

Muscle that initiates abduction of arm

Supraspinatus

37

Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff

Supraspinatus

38

Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm

Trapezius and serratus

39

Tendon that courses through shoulder joint

Long head of biceps

40

Chief supinator muscle of hand

Biceps brachii

41

Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula

Long thoracic nerve

42

Spinal levels of axillary nerve

C5 and C6

43

Spinal levels to muscles of the hand

C8 and T1

44

Dermatome of thumb

C6

45

Nerve to thenar compartment

Recurrent branch of median

46

Innervation of adductor pollicis

Ulnar (deep branch)

47

Innervation to all interosseous muscles

Ulnar (deep branch)

48

Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus

Shoulder

49

Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus

Intrinsic hand muscles

50

Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome

Median

51

Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome

Ulnar

52

Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw” hand

Lumbricals

53

Boundaries of femoral triangle

Inguinal ligament, sartorius and adductor longus

54

Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath

Femoral nerve

55

Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath

Femoral vein

56

Contents of femoral canal

Deep inguinal lymph nodes

57

Medial boundary of femoral ring

Lacunar ligament

58

Structures that course throughout entire length of adductor canal

Saphenous nerve, nerve
to vastus medialis, descending genicular vessels

59

Muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa

Popliteus

60

Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint

Iliopsoas

61

Muscle that prevents pelvis from tilting when walking

Gluteus medius

62

Muscle that extends leg

Quadriceps femoris

63

Muscle that unlocks knee joint

Popliteus

64

Muscle affected with “foot slap”

Tibialis anterior

65

Chief invertors of foot

Tibialis anterior and posterior

66

Chief evertors of foot

Fibularis longus and brevis

67

Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia

Anterior cruciate

68

Ligament laxity with positive valgus maneuver

Medial collateral

69

Most commonly injured ankle ligament

Anterior talofibular
("Always Tears First")

70

Ligament stretched with “flat foot”

Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring)

71

Joints for movements of inversion and eversion

Subtalar and transverse tarsal

72

Major artery to head of femur in adult

Medial femoral circumflex

73

Nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula

Common fibular

74

Tendon affected with avulsion fracture of 5th metatarsal

Fibularis brevis

75

Innervation of adductor magnus

Obturator, tibial portion of Sciatic

76

Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tibial

77

Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot

Saphenous (L4)

78

Cutaneous innervation to lateral side of foot

Sural (S1)

79

Cutaneous innervation of heel

Tibial

80

Cutaneous innervation to dorsal aspect of web between toes 1 and 2

Deep fibular

81

Cutaneous innervation of most of dorsum of foot

Superficial fibular

82

Major dermatome to big toe

L4

83

Dermatome to small toe

S1

84

Spinal level of patellar reflex

L4

85

Spinal level of Achilles reflex

S1

86

Locking of knee when walking suggests

Meniscus injury

87

Major injury triad with lateral impact to knee

Medial collateral, medial
meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament

88

Dermatome around nipple

T4

89

Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula

TV7

90

Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium

Thymus

91

Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly

2nd

92

Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung

4th

93

Inferior extent of lung at midclavicular line

6th rib

94

Inferior extent of pleura at midclavicular line

8th rib

95

Inferior extent of lung at midaxillary line

8th rib

96

Inferior extent of pleura at midaxillary line

10th rib

97

Inferior extent of lung posteriorly

10th rib

98

Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly

12th rib

99

Innervation of costal pleura

Intercostal nerve

100

Innervation of mediastinal pleura

Phrenic nerve

101

Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve

Left 2nd interspace

102

Site for auscultation of aortic valve

Right 2nd interspace

103

Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve

Xiphisternal joint

104

Site for auscultation of mitral valve

Left 5th interspace, midclavicular line

105

Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection

Right ventricle

106

Chamber that forms apex of heart

Left ventricle

107

major chamber that forms base of heart

Left atrium

108

Heart chamber that contains moderator band

Right ventricle

109

Artery that determines coronary dominance

Posterior interventricular

110

Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries

Right coronary artery

111

Location of SA node

Cristae terminalis

112

Major vessel that drains the musculature of the heart

Coronary sinus

113

Innervation of fibrous pericardium

Phrenic nerve

114

Most common cause of systolic ejection murmur

Aortic stenosis

115

Rib associated with sternal angle

Second rib

116

Vertebral level associated with sternal angle

Disc between TV4-5

117

Location of ductus arteriosus

Between left pulmonary artery and aorta

118

Nerve potentially injured with repair of patent ductus arteriosus

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

119

Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic

Subclavian and internal Jugular

120

Veins that unite to form superior vena cava

Right and left Brachiocephalic

121

Termination of azygos vein

Superior vena cava

122

Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct

Azygos veins, aorta

123

Spinal levels of greater splanchnic nerve

T5-9

124

Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve

T10-11

125

Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve

T12

126

Thoracic structures that can compress the esophagus

Left bronchus, aorta and Diaphragm

127

Disease often associated with thymoma

Myasthenia gravis

128

Remnant of umbilical vein

Round ligament of liver

129

Dermatome to umbilical area

T10

130

Dermatome to suprapubic area

L1

131

Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery

T12

132

Vertebral level associated with origin of SMA

L1

133

Vertebral level associated with origin renal arteries

L2

134

Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries

L2

135

Vertebral level associated with origin of IMA

L3

136

Vertebral level of umbilicus

Disc L3-4

137

Vertebral level of aortic bifurcation

L5

138

Vertebral level for formation of IVC

L5

139

Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall

T7-L1

140

Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring

Aponeurosis of external oblique

141

Structure that forms deep inguinal ring

Trasnversalis fasica

142

Structure that form floor of inguinal canal

Inguinal ligament

143

Bony attachments of inguinal ligament

ASIS and pubic tubercle

144

Structures that form conjoint tendon

Internal oblique and transversus abdominis

145

Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic fascia

External oblique

146

Abdominal continuous with cremasteric fascia

Internal oblique

147

Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia

Transversalis fascia

148

Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and indirect hernias

Inferior epigastric artery

149

Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring

Indirect inguinal

150

Most common type of hernia

Indirect inguinal

151

Most common side for indirect inguinal hernia

Right

152

Type of hernia that protrudes through Hesselbach’s triangle

Direct inguinal

153

Boundaries of Hesselbach’s triangle

Inguinal ligament, rectus
abdominis, inferior epigastric artery and vein

154

Type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings

Indirect inguinal

155

Fluid in processus vaginalis

Hydrocele

156

Communication between greater and lesser sacs

Epiploic foramen

157

Superior border of epiploic foramen

Caudate lobe of liver

158

Inferior border of epiploic foramen

Part one of duodenum

159

Posteiror border of epiploic foramen

IVC

160

Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct

Hepatoduodenal (lesser omentum)

161

Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid in left paracolic gutter

Phrenicocolic ligament

162

Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid within infracolic compartment

Root of mesentary

163

Superior extent of right paracolic gutter

Hepatorenal recess

164

Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity

Rectouterine pouch

165

Structures supplied by celiac artery

Stomach, duodenum, liver,
spleen, gallbladder, pancreas

166

Branches of celiac artery

Left gastric, common hepatic and splenic

167

Blood supply to stomach

Right and left
gastroepiploics, right, left and short gastric

168

Major structures of bed of stomach

Pancreas, spleen, left
kidney and suprarenal gland, diaphragm

169

Ducts that join to form common bile duct

Cystic and common Hepatic

170

Structure that separates right and left lobes of liver

Falciform ligament

171

Origin of cystic artery

Right hepatic artery

172

Ribs directly related to spleen

Ribs 9-11

173

Organs related to spleen

Stomach, colon, left kidney, tail of pancreas

174

Artery to small intestine

SMA

175

Organs supplied by both celiac and SMA

Duodenum, pancreas

176

Organs supplied by both SMA and IMA

Transverse colon

177

Vessel located posterior to head of pancreas

IVC

178

Vessel located posterior to neck of pancreas

Portal vein

179

Veins that unite to form portal vein

Splenic and SMV

180

Clinically importatnt organs for portacaval anastomoses

Esophagus, rectum, liver

181

Two structures that lies posterior to SMA near its origin

Left renal vein, duodenum

182

Three distinguishing features of the large intestine

Tenia coli, haustra, epiploic appendages

183

Termination of left gonadal vein

Left renal vein

184

Termination of right gonadal vein

Inferior vena cava

185

Location of initial pain of appendicitis

Umbilical region

186

Motor innervation of diaphragm

Phrenic

187

Sensory innervation of diaphragm

Phrenic + intercostal

188

Spinal levels of phrenic nerve

C3-5

189

Vertebral level that inferior vena cava traverses diaphragm

T8

190

Vertebral level that esophagus traverses diaphragm

T10

191

Structures that traverse diaphragm with esophagus

Vagal trunks

192

Vertebral level that aorta traverses diaphragm

T12

193

Structure that traverses diaphragm with aorta

Thoracic duct

194

Structure that traverses diaphragm through crura

Greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves

195

Structure that separates pelvis and perineum

Pelvic diaphragm

196

Two major components of pelvic diaphragm

Levator ani + coccygeus

197

Two major components of levator ani

Pubococcygeus and
Iliococcygeus

198

Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall

Obturator internus and Piriformis

199

Means by which obturator internus exits pelvis

Lesser sciatic foramen

200

Means by which piriformis exits pelvis

Greater sciatic foramen

201

Innervation of detrusor

Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)

202

Remnants of umbilical arteries

Medial umbilical ligaments

203

Chief artery to rectal mucosa

Superior rectal

204

Most common type of pelvic inlet in females

Gynecoid

205

Two remnants of gubernaculum in females

Ovarian and round ligament

206

Ligament that contains ovarian vessels

Suspensory ligament of ovary

207

Lymph nodes for ovary and testes

Lumbar

208

Normal position of uterus

Anterverted, anteflexed

209

Chief uterine support

Pubococcygeus

210

Ligament that contains uterine vessels

Lateral cervical

211

Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy

Ureter

212

Relation of ureter to uterine artery

Inferior and posterior

213

Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces

Perineal membrane

214

Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles

Ischial tuberosities

215

Lateral wall of ischioanal fossa

Fascia of obturator Internus

216

Structure that forms the pudendal canal

Fascia of obturator Internus

217

Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids

Pectinate line

218

Lymph nodes for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal

Internal iliac, IM

219

Lymph nodes for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal

Superficial inguinal

220

Major structure of deep perineal space

Sphincter urethrae

221

Lymph nodes for glans penis

Deep inguinal

222

Muscle which compresses the bulb of penis

Bulbospongiosus

223

Muscle which compresses the crus of penis

Ischiocavernosus

224

Muscles which meet at the perineal body

Superficial and deep
perineal, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, pubococcygeus

225

Vertebral level of hyoid bone

CV3

226

Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage

CV4,5

227

Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage

CV6

228

Muscles that are innervated by CN XI

Trapezius, SCM

229

Structures that course between anterior and middle scalene

Brachial plexus, subclavian artery

230

Innervation of omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid

Ansa cervicalis

231

Innervation of digastric

Anterior belly = CN V
Posterior belly = CN VII

232

Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body

CN IX, CN X

233

Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor

Auditory tube, levator veli Palatini

234

Nerves of pharyngeal plexus

CN IX, CN X, Sympathetics

235

Only muscle innervated by CN IX

Stylopharyngeus

236

Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane

Internal laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal artery

237

Only muscle to abduct vocal cords

Posterior cricoarytenoid

238

Innervation of cricothyroid

External laryngeal nerve

239

Innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid

Recurrent laryngeal

240

Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords

Cricothyroid

241

Sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords

Internal laryngeal

242

Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords

Recurrent laryngeal

243

Site of aspirated lodged fishbone

Piriform recess

244

Afferent – efferent limbs of gag reflex

CN IX – CN X

245

Afferent – efferent limbs of cough reflex

CN X – CN X

246

Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thyroid surgery

Recurrent laryngeal

247

Chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus

CN VII and VIII

248

Foramen where CN VII exits skull

Stylomastoid foramen

249

Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura

Middle meningeal

250

Major cutaneous nerve of face

CN V

251

Major artery to internal structures of head

Maxillary

252

Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head

T1 – 2

253

Autonomic ganglia for CN III

Ciliary

254

Sensory ganglia for CN VII

Geniculate

255

Autonomic ganglia for CN VII

PPG and submandibular

256

Autonomic ganglia for CN IX

Otic

257

Muscle attached to disc of TMJ

Lateral pterygoid

258

Muscle that retracts mandible

Temporalis

259

Major nerve to TMJ (pain)

Auriculotemporal

260

Specific nerves that elicit secretion from the parotid gland

Tympanic branch of CN IX and lesser petrosal

261

Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to parotid

Auriculotemporal

262

Structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity

Posterior ethmoid sinus

263

Structures that open into middle meatus of nasal cavity

Frontal, maxillary, anterior and middle ethmoid

264

Structures that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity

Nasolacrimal duct

265

Major artery to nasal cavity

Sphenopalatine

266

Most common site of nose bleed

Kiesselbach’s plexus

267

Innervation of levator veli palatini

CN X

268

Muscle that opens auditory tube

Tensor veli palatini

269

Innervation of tensor veli palatini

CN V3

270

Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue

Chorda tympani

271

Site of cell bodies for nerve that carries taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue

Geniculate ganglion

272

Specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland

Chorda tympani

273

Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetic to submandibular

Lingual

274

Nerve injured when tonsilar pillars sag and uvula deviates

CN X

275

Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy

CN IX

276

Muscle that protrudes tongue

Genioglossus

277

Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue

Ipsilateral CN XII

278

Specific nerve that stimulates tear production

Greater petrosal CN VII

279

Sensory nerve to cornea

CN V1 (nasociliary)

280

Muscle that elevates and abducts eye

Inferior oblique

281

Muscle that depresses and abducts eye

Superior oblique

282

Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil

Lateral horn, T1 - 2

283

Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil

Superior cervical ganglion

284

Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil

Edinger-Westphal

285

Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil

Ciliary ganglion

286

Innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane

Auriculotemporal, CN X

287

Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane

CN IX

288

Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of aorta

TV4-5

289

Level where arch of aorta is continuous with descending aorta

TV4-5

290

Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs

Bronchodilation, Vasoconstriction

291

Effect of parasympathetic nerves on lungs

Bronchoconstriction, Vasodilation

292

Rationale for aspirated small objects to go to right primary bronchus

Wider diameter, shorter and more vertical

293

Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping

Superior to 12th rib, posteriorly

294

Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk

conus arteriosum or infundibulum

295

Name given to orientation where uterus and vagina intersect at angle of 90 degrees

Anteversion

296

Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix intersect at angle of 10-15 degrees

Anteflexion

297

Ridge located between sinus venarum and right ventricle

Cristae terminalis

298

Nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy

Both left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves

299

Specific muscle that holds patella in place

Vastus medialis

300

First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury to femoral nerve

Vastus medialis

301

Last portion of quadriceps femoris to recover following injury

Vastus medialis

302

Innervation to nail bed of middle finger

Median nerve

303

Innervation to nail bed of ring finger

Ulnar and median

304

Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4

L4