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Flashcards in Hinduism Deck (49)
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1

Western Religions

Western: Emphasis on INDIVIDUAL, Continuation of life as ideal, resurrection, historicity, singleness of God, Uniqueness of path leading to salvation

2

Eastern Religions

COMMUNAL Identity
Extinction of individual life as ideal
REINCARNATION
Little focus on HISTORICITY
Divine manifestations embodied in DIFFERENT beings
VARIOUS saving paths

3

How do they view time?

Eastern as one big circle, while Western as a line

4

Hindu belief in divine being expressed?

Can be expressed in many different ways - like religions have different responsibilities. Almost complementary!

5

Define Hinduism

Not a single founder or creed
A set of religious beliefs sharing a common core!

6

Is Hinduism a Western or Eastern Term?

Western

7

How large and how old of a world religion?

Third largest, oldest

8

Earliest roots were seen in?

Agriculturist Dravidians (2000 BCE) with the pastoralist INDOARYANS( in the Indus Valley

9

Earliest roots were seen in?

Agriculturist Dravidians (2000 BCE) with the pastoralist INDOARYANS (1800-1500 BCE) in the Indus Valley

10

Ancient religion of?

Nature worship and fertility goddesses!

11

The different historical periods?

The Vedic Period
The Upanishad Period (6th Century BCE)
The Bhakti Period (since 6th Century BCE)

12

The Vedic Period

AKA The Way of Works
-Four Vedas: hymns, magic spells, epic stories
-Devas: gods of earth, air, heaven,
-Preeminance of priests (Brahmins)
-Sacrifices on fire alters with proper formulas

13

The Unpanishad Period

***
AKA The Way of Knowledge
-Challenge to the priestly religion of ritual
-Interiorization: asceticism and meditation
-Philosophical questions: Universal Monism
-Tolerance for different forms of religious devotion

14

The Bhakti Period

AKA The Way of Devotion
-Loving and grateful devotion to one deity
-Open to everyone, regardless of class
-Temples and domestic shrines

15

What happened in the 19th century?

***
Revival of Hinduism!

16

YOGA

The different ways Hinduism is manifested!

17

Raja Yoga

Meditation and concentration

18

Juana Yoga

Spiritual/Intellectual, the path of rational inquiry

19

Karma Yoga

Active, the path of right action/service

20

Bhakti Yoga

emotional, the path of devotion

21

Shruti

***
Revealed: Vedas, Brahmanas (commentaries), Upanishads: philosophical writings before Christ

22

Smriti

The open/human side of the canon
-Beloved by all the people
-Epics: Major stories.
-Hundreds of other stories, etc.

23

Epics:

***
Mahabharata: (Bhagavad-Gita): Krishna
Ramayana: Rama

24

Brahman

The impersonal source of all objective reality, a universal force of all that is

25

Atman

The subjective manifestation of that reality in our inward world of reason, feeling, will and self-conciousness. (A spirit/soul of sort)
(Like a single drop of water in an ocean.)

26

Maya

Illusion, failure to recognize that we are not individuals but only a small part of Brahman

27

Karma

The external law that words, thoughts, and deeds fix our destiny through unavoidable consequences.

28

The Caste System has been explained in both

Dharma and Karma

29

Samsara

The cycle of reincarnation - up or down on the spectrum until MOKSHA (Salvation is achieved.)

30

Three main "Liberated" Dieties

-Brahma
-Shiva
-Vishnu