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Flashcards in Hip Hop and Beyond Deck (64):
1

What is retronueve?

Refers to musicians who celebrate the history of R&B by remaining true to previous standards of musicianship and soulfulness.

2

Where and when was hip hop developed?

South Bronx in the 1970's.

3

What is an important component of hip hop?

Rap.

4

Hip hop was a collusion of ___ ___ from ___.

DJ practices, disco.

5

What social setting did hip hop develop in?

There was a disastrous urban renewal in the South Bronx, with declining jobs, declining affordable housing, and less public education.

6

Who is DJ Kool Herc?

A Jamaican-born American DJ who is credited with originating hip hop music in the early 1970's in the Bronx, NYC.

7

Who is credited with originating hip hop music?

DJ Kool Herc.

8

Who coined the term "break" and "break dancing?"

DJ Kool Herc.

9

What terms did DJ Kool Herc coin?

"Break" and "break dancing."

10

DJ Kool Herc began to isolate the ___ portion of records.

Instrumental.

11

What is Hip Hop? Be sure to list the 4 elements.

A style of popular music of U.S. black and hispanic origin. It is characterized by four distinct elements:
1. Rap music (oral).
2. Turntabilism or DJing (aural).
3. Breaking (physical).
4. Graffiti art (visual).
Even while it continues in contemporary history to develop globally in a flourishing myriad of diverse styles, these foudnational elements provide coherance.

12

What is Rap?

A type of popular music of U.S. black origin in which words are recited rapidly and rhythmically over a prerecorded, typically electronic instrumental backing.

13

What is Rapping?

Spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics.

14

What are other words for Rapping?

Emceeing, MCing, spitting bars, or rhyming.

15

How is rapping distinct from spoken word?

It is performed in time to a beat.

16

Stylistically, rap occupies a grey area between ___, ___, ___, and ___.

Speech, prose, poetry, and singing.

17

Which band won two Grammy Awards and were named Band of the Year by the Rolling Stone magazinr in 1992?

Arrested Development.

18

What was the Arrested Development song studied in class?

"People Everyday"

19

Where did Drill music originate?

Chicago.

20

What is Drill music?

A type of a hip hop subgenre originating from young, south side Chicago rappers and producers. The genre is one of the most prominent contemporary faces of Chicago hip hop. It is defined by its grim. violent lyrical content and trap-influenced beats.

21

What is Drill music defined by?

Its grim, violent lyrical content and trap-influenced beats.

22

What are Trap-Beats?

Musical beat tracks that incorporate 808 sub-bass kick drums, double time, triple-time, and other faster time divisions and meters. Heavy layering and use of hi-hats, synthesizers, and "cinematic" strings are also characteristically incorporated into trap-beat tracks.

23

Who are the Pocket Dwellers?

A Canadian hip hop gorup based out of Toronto.

24

What are the Pocket Dwellers known for?

Atypical lyrical content heavily saturated in metaphorical references ranging from Greek mythology and literary classics to contemporary politics and public figures.

25

What is Riffaterre's Equation for the Analysis of Extended Metaphors?

T (tenor) = V (vehicle)

26

In the ___, there was a large influx of Puerto Rican immigrants who became very involved in the breakdancing scene in the South Bronx.

1980's.

27

___ ___ became well known for his social activism following the release of his album Planet Rock" in 1982.

Afrika Bambaataa.

28

What was Afrika Bambaataa's early work labelled as?

"Electro-funk." He later became a significant founder of the hip hop genre.

29

Who incorporated elements of political protest and social realism that became closely associated to the hip hop world?

Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five feat. Melle Mel.

30

Run-DMC worked with ___ ___ Records.

Def Jam.

31

What was the source of Run-DMC's early crossover success?

The fact that they explicitly integrated rock elements into their music.

32

What did Def Jam records become known for?

Their commercial success and for generating crossover artists.

33

Give an example of Def Jam's success in producing crossover artists.

They produced the first successful white rap act, the Beastie Boys.

34

When did digital sampling become readily available?

The mid-1980's.

35

Who was the most well known hip hop band to incorporate noises into their music through the use of samples?

Public Enemy ("Bring the Noise").

36

Name a band that built their sound off of Public Enemy.

Rage Against the Machine.

37

Who is Salt n' Pepa?

The first ever female hip hop band to achieve mainstream success.

38

Name Salt n' Pepa's hit.

"Let's Talk About Sex"

39

Salt n' Pepa dressed however they wanted, and presented themselves as powerful, empowered, and capable ___.

Women.

40

What did Latifah say were common misconceptions of hip hop?

It's violent, its a bunch of hoodlums, can't convet a positive message.

41

What is the reason why hip hop is so attractive to some people and repulsive to others.

Whatever one finds in the community, they'll find in the records.

42

Alternative or progressive hip hop was designed as a label referring to bands and artists such as:

-A Tribe Called Quest.
-De La Soul.
-Arrested Development.

43

Politically oriented messages began to get tied into artists such as___ ___.

Queen Latifah.

44

Throughout the 90's it was common for radio stations to...

Intentionally not play rap records.

45

Why did radio stations censor rap?

Rap was associated with violence, and lyrical content became highly scrutinized and taken too seriously.

46

L.A. Gangsta Rap and the 1992 Riots were triggered by...

The American construction worker Rodney King who was severely beaten by LAPD officers following a high speed chase. Four of the officers were exonerated, and riots ensued. 53 people were killed, and many were injured.

47

Dr. Dre and Ice Cube used to be part of ___.

N.W.A.

48

What are the 3 primary characteristics of Dr. Dre?

1. He used/developed a classic high-pitched synthesizer sound.
2. He began to incorporate sung choruses into his songs.
3. Dre used a live band to recreate most of his backing tracks/samples.

49

What was Snoop Dogg known for?

His unique vical timbre and method of vocal delivery, which was very smooth and not "spit out". Smooth and delicate tone.

50

Snoop Dogg's ___ was the most anticipated rap album of all time.

Doggystyle.

51

What was the significance of Doggystyle?

It helped introduce G-Funk to a mainstream audience, bringing forward West Coast hip hop as a dominant force in the early nineties.

52

How did Snoop Dogg manage to avoid controversy?

Through his use of subtlety and generally less aggressive vocal style.

53

What is G-Funk?

Also known as Gangsta Funk, is a subgenre of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast Gangsta Rap in the early 1990's.

54

What are some musical attributes of G-Funk.

-Incorporates multi-layered and melodic synthesizers.
-Slow hypnotic grooves.
-Deep bass.
-Background female vocals.
-Extensive sampling of P-Funk tunes.

55

Lyrical content of G-Funk can address issues such as...

Sex, drugs, violence, vandalism, and women, but also of love for a city, love for friends, and relaxing words.

56

Give examples of East Coast and West Coast rappers amd their respective producers.

East Coast:
-Biggie Smalls.
-Puff Daddy.
-Wu Tang Clan.
-Bad Boy Records.

West Coast:
-Tupac Shakur.
-Snoop Doggy Dogg.
-Dr. Dre.
-Death Row Records.

57

Puff Daddy demonstrated how rap's ___ distinguishes it from some of the dominant musical genres of the past century.

Materialism.

58

Lil' Kim and Foxy Brown were examples of...

Early female rappers who used their sexuality aggressively.

59

What is significant about Missy Elliot?

Constructed an image for herself that was "wacky" and atypical. She had a very unique approach to her music videos which were critically acclaimed in the industry.

60

Who got the nickname "Misdemeanor?"

Missy Elliot.

61

Missy Elliot demonstrated the progression of how women assert themselves. What does this mean?

She was a black female who did not present herself as an object for male sexual objectification.

62

The Fugees' The Score was released in 1996 and classified as ___ ___ ___ at the time.

Progressive Hip Hop.

63

___ ___ was the first ever female superstar to crossover from hip hop into the mainstream .

Lauryn Hill.

64

Hill's collection of attributes set her in sharp contrast to artists associated with Death Row Records. What are these attributes?

Articulate, educated, multi-talented, adamantly religious.