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Flashcards in Histology Deck (30):

Hemisected Kidney

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A. cortex B. medulla C. renal pyramids (encircled regions) D. minor calyx E. major calyx F. ureter G. renal papilla


Cortex of the Kidney

Cortex of the Kidney


1. connective tissue capsule at the surface of the kidney

2. renal corpuscles (encircled in blue)

3. straight coursing collecting tubules

4. interlobular arteries

5. convoluted tubules (region encircled in yellow: types cannot be easily distinguished at this magnification)

6. renal corpuscles in which the glomerulus is mostly out of the plane of section.


Cortex and Junction with Medulla

(cortex is on right)

1. rays of collecting tub ules (gross anatomical term for parallel collections of collecting tubules)

2. approximate junction of cortex and medulla (yellow line)

3. blood vessels


Junction of cortex and medulla with mostly medulla shown in the micrograph. The cortex is at the left.

1. collecting tubules and/or ducts.

2. thin segments of loops of Henle (interspersed between collecting tubules as light regions, encircled, red—these

regions also contain the vasa recta).

3. renal corpuscle of a juxtamedullary nephron (encircled, yellow)

Note: Renal corpuscles are not present in the medulla. Regions of connective tissue are stained blue-green.


Renal Medulla

Note larger collecting tubules or ducts that have resulted from fusion of lesser collecting tubules (arrows). Bluestaining material is interstitial connective tissue. Fibroblasts, wandering phagocytes, and cells that produce mRNA for erythropoietin are found in the interstitium in the medulla and cortex. Notice tubules come into and pass out of the plane of section.


Junction of the medulla and a minor calyx.

This section shows collecting ducts and papillary ducts formed from the fusion of collecting ducts. Papillary ducts open into minor calices of the renal pelvis. Dark staining streak is a fold in the section.

1. urinary space of the calyx. Note the epithelium is continuous with the papillary (and collecting) ducts.

2. papillary ducts – collecting ducts drain via the papillary ducts into the minor calices.


A renal corpuscle showing entry of the afferent arteriole:

1. arteriole

2. glomerulus

3. urinary space of the corpuscle

4. intralobular artery

5. simple squamous epithelium lining Bowman’s capsule.


A renal corpuscle showing entry of the afferent arteriole:

1. arteriole

2. glomerulus

3. urinary space of the corpuscle

4. intralobular artery

5. simple squamous epithelium lining Bowman’s capsule.


Higher magnification of the corpuscle

1. probable J.G. cells.

2. portion of macula densa in adjacent distal tubule

3. lumen of glomerular capillaries

4. nuclei of podocytes and mesangial cells (cannot readily always distinguish)

5. nuclei of parietal epithelial cells (of Bowman's Capsule)


Renal corpuscle showing afferent arteriole in cross section:

1. arteriole in x-section. Note nuclei of endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the arteriole.

2. proximal convoluted tubules (columnar, note microvilli of brush border).

3. distal convoluted tubules (DCT, much smoother looking lumenal surface of epithelium).


The urinary pole (beginning of proximal tubule) is indicated with arrows for both renal corpuscles.


1. glomerular capillary lumen (note the fenestrated endothelium).

2. Nucleus of endothelial cell.

3. Foot processes of the podocytes (pedicels).

4. The filtration barrier.

5. The urinary space of Bowman’s capsule.

6. Mesangial cell nucleus. Note the basal lamina between podocyte processes and the fenestrated endothelium. It is the primary molecular filtration barrier.


Low magnification EM micrograph showing greater detail of proximal tubule (large photo).

1. Lumen of the proximal tubule.

2. Nuclei of the epithelial cells.

3. Microvillar brush border.

4. just an apical vacuole.

5. Mitochondra

6. lysosomes.


Higher magnification showing portions of interdigitated epithelial cells

1. lumenal space. 2. microvillar brush border. 3. tubular invagination of the apical membrane. 4. junctional complexes between epithelial cells. 5. apical vacuole. 6. Mitochondria. 9. lysosomes. 10. nucleus. 12. indicates basal infolds of the basolateral plasma membrane. Why the junctional complexes?

Why have so many mitochondria near the basal infolds? (Think about what the main role of these cells is and these answers should be obvious).


This is a section through the medulla with longitudinal views of tubules.

1. Descending thick segment of proximal tubule (note brush border as a “fuzzy” lumenal lining).

2. thin segment of loop of Henle.

3. Collecting tubule or duct.

4. Ascending thick segment of distal tubule (lack of significant brush border, see next image).

Arrow—shows the junction of a thin segment (flattened squamous epithelium) with a thick segment, in this case the

ascending (distal) portion of the Loop of Henle.


Urinary Bladder.

1. lining of transitional epithelium

2. prominent lamina propria

3. Smooth muscles (spanned by line).

Distension of the bladder prevents reflux back into the ureters.


EM of junction between ascending thin and thick segments.

Note again abrupt change in epithelium. 1. lumen of thin segment. 2. lumen of thick segment (note: this is an ascending distal segment because there is no significant brush border). 4. nucleus of squamous epithelial cell of thin segment of loop of Henle. 5. peritubular capillaries, 7. abundant mitochondria in thick segment.


Low magnification electron micrograph showing cross section through a thin segment and adjacent blood


1 = lumen of thin segment of loop of Henle. Note the thin wall, although thicker than the endothelial cell linings of 4 and 5.

2 = wall of a portion of the thick segment.

4 and 5 = vasa recta

6 = nucleus of connective tissue cell


  • nephrotic syndrome
  • normal light microscopy
  • negative IF
  • EM w/ foot process fusion

Minimal Change Disease



  • nephrotic syndrome

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis


  • nephrotic syndrome

Membranous Nephropathy


  • nephrotic syndrome

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephropathy Type 1


  • nephrotic syndrome

Membranoproliferative GN Type 1


  • nephrotic syndrome

Membranoproliferative GN Type 2


  • nephritic

IgA Nephropathy

  • mesangial immune complexes containing IgA


  • nephritic

Lupus Nephritis

  • immune complex deposition


  • nephritic

Anti-GBM Disease

  • antibody to glomerular antigen


  • nephritic

ANCA Assoiciated Vasculitis

  • small vessel vasculitis


  • nephritic

Thin Basement Membrane Disease

– Also known as benign familial hemauria

(excellent prognosis)

– Occurs in 1% of the population

– Mutations in genes encoding collagen IV

– Need to differentiate from Alport’s syndrome

– Diagnosis based on electron microscopy


  • nephritic

Alport's Disease

• Triad of nephritis, deafness, and ocular


• Due to mutation in alpha-5 chain of collagen IV

• X-linked

• Can’t form normal basement membranes

• Definitive diagnosis based on finding the basketweave pattern on electron microscopy

• Usually progress to end stage renal disease