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Flashcards in Histology Deck (28):
1

Name the elastic arteries that branch from the aorta

Brachiocephalic
Left common carotid
Left subclavian

2

How does the abdominal aorta terminate?

Bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries in the pelvis

3

How does the aorta maintain blood pressure during diastole?

The elastic walls of the aorta recoil to maintain the pressure on the blood. (Elastic recoil)

4

What are the 3 major types of arteries?

Elastic conducting
Muscular distributing
Arterioles

5

What are the 3 layers in the walls of arteries and veins?

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventitia

6

Describe the intima of a large artery

Endothelial cells with long axes parallel to the long axis of the artery. Narrow subendothelium of connective tissue with discontinuous internal elastic lamina.

7

Describe the media of a large artery

40-70 fenestrated elastic membranes. Smooth muscle cells and collagen between these lamellae. Thin external elastic lamina may be present.

8

Describe the adventitia of a large artery

Thin layer of fibroelastic connective tissue containing vasa vasorum, lymphatic vessels and nerve fibres.

9

Describe the intima of muscular arteries

Endothelium, subendothelial layer and thick internal elastic lamina.

10

Describe the media of muscular arteries

40 layers of smooth muscle cells. Prominent external elastic lamina.

11

Describe the adventitia of muscular arteries

Thin layer of fibroelastic connective tissue containing vasa vasorum (not prominent), lymphatic vessels and nerve fibres.

12

Give an example of an absolute end artery

The central artery to the retina

13

What is bridging?

The compression of a segment of coronary artery during systole, resulting in a narrowing that reverses during diastole.

14

Describe arterioles

Arteries with a diameter

15

What are metarterioles?

The arteries that supply blood to capillary beds. They have pre capillary sphincters and the smooth muscle layer is not continuous.

16

Where does blood flow fastest?

Where the total cross sectional area is least

17

What are the 3 types of capillaries?

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoids

18

What is the most common capillary type and where is it found?

Continuous
Located in: nervous tissue, muscle, connective tissue, exocrine glands and lungs.

19

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

Gut, endocrine glands and renal glomerulus.

20

Where are sinusoids found?

Liver, spleen and bone marrow

21

What cells are pericytes capable of dividing into?

Muscle cells or fibroblasts

22

Describe the histology of small and medium sized veins

Have a well developed adventitia, the intima is thin and the media is thin.

23

Describe the histology of large veins

diameter >10mm
Intima thicker
Well developed adventitia
Do NOT have a prominent media

24

What are venae comitantes?

Deep, paired veins that accompany one of the smaller arteries. The 3 vessels are wrapped in one sheath so the pulsing of the artery promotes venous return.

25

How is the muscle distributed in large veins?

Longitudinal smooth muscle in adventitia
Circular smooth muscle in the media

26

What occurs anatomically at the sternal angle? (T4-T5)

Mediastinum separated into superior and inferior compartments
Aortic arch
Bifurcation of trachea
Bifurcation of pulmonary trunk

27

Which part of the mediastinum is the heart enclose in?

The inferior, middle part.

28

How many cusps do the outflow valves have?

3 cusps