Introduction To CVS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction To CVS Deck (22):
1

What does rate of diffusion depend on?

Area
Diffusion 'resistance'
Concentration gradient

2

How can diffusion 'resistance' be determined?

Nature of molecule
Nature of barrier
Path length

3

What is the limiting factor in our bodies for diffusion?

The concentration gradient is usually the limiting factor.

4

How do we maintain the concentration gradients in our bodies?

The faster the blood flows, the easier it is to maintain the concentration gradient. Therefore we control the perfusion rate.

5

What is the cardiac output of a typical 70kg man?

5 litres per minute

6

How do we control blood flow?

With arterioles and pre-capillary sphincters

7

Where does the biggest drop in pressure occur in the circulatory system?

After the arterioles so that the pressure is low when it reaches the capillaries.

8

What are capillaries composed of?

A single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by a basal lamina.

9

Define dyspnoea

Breathlessness

10

Define orthopnoea

Breathlessness on lying flat, sign of advanced heart failure

11

How do we measure a pulse?

Count for 15 seconds than x4

12

What is the approximate pressure of the RA?

0-8mmHg

13

What is the approximate pressure of LA?

4-12 mmHg

14

What is the approximate pressure of RV?

Systole: 15-30 mmHg
Diastole: 0-5 mmHg

15

What is the approximate pressure of LV?

Systole: 90-140 mmHg
Diastole: 4-12 mmHg

16

Where is the best place to hear S1?

Cardiac apex

17

Where is the best place to hear S2?

Upper left sternal border

18

Where would we listen for an aortic valve murmur?

2nd ICS, sternal edge, RHS

19

Where would we listen for a pulmonary valve murmur?

2nd ICS, sternal edge, LHS

20

Where would we listen for a mitral valve murmur?

Mid-clavicular line, 5th ICS, LHS

21

Where would we listen for a tricuspid valve murmur?

5th ICS, left sternal edge

22

Is a fourth heart sound ever normal?

No
A 4th heart sound is always pathological