Histology and Pathology Flashcards Preview

Z MD1 Respiratory block > Histology and Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology and Pathology Deck (41):
1

type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes are what

type 1 - simple squamous epithelium (form majority of the area, but are in lesser amount) type 2 - cuboidal cells, often in the ange between alveoli with short microvilli and lamellar bodies which secrete surfactant to reduce ST and act as stem cells

2

protective mechanisms of the lungs

- mucus - traps dust and other particles in it - cilia - move the mucus and trapped particles up to the nasopharynx to be swallowed

2

why is pulmonary infarction relatively rare

collateral blood supply of the lungs

2

long term outcomes of DVT

- Fibrinolysis - organization - complete or partial recanalisation of thrombus - incompetent valves - varicose veins and chronic venous insuffiency

3

fate of pulmonary emboli

- dissolution spontaneously - organisation

4

structure of terminal bronchioles

- cuboidal epithelium with some cilia - clara cells - one or two layers of SM - no goblet cells

4

what are the effects of chronic venous insufficiency

venous stasis chronic oedema pigmentation chronic ulceration

5

blood-gas barrier consists of

- surfactant - type 1 pneumocyte epithelia - basal lamina of type 1 pneumocyte - CT - basal lamina of endothelium - endothelial cell - plasma

5

effects of embolus depends on...

- size of embolus - presence or absence of underlying lung and cardiovascular disease

5

effects of large or numerous pulmonary emboli

- sudden collapse and death - acute cor pulmonale with dyspnoea, hypothension, cyanosis

6

structure of clara cells

columnar to cuboidal cells with short microvilli containing granules

8

percentages of cells composing the respiratory epithelium

- 30% goblet cells - 30% basal stem cells - 3% brush cells with microvilli - 3% serous cells -1% small granule cells

8

What is the Leiden mutation

point mutation in Factor 5 (natural coagulant) --> mutation means that APC cannot inactivate it

9

two fates for intra-alveolar macrophages

1) head up towards the bronchioles and carried off by cilia 2) cross the walls of the alveolus and take up permanent residence in ateralveolar setpum

10

when is a bronchi a bronchiole

- when the cartilage is gone - 1-2 mm diameter

11

if there is an infarct in the lungs, what does it look like

wedge shaped, haemorrhagic, in the periphery

11

Methods for DVT prevention

- pharmacological prophylaxis - mobilzation - exercises - compression stockings - lifestyle

12

what composes the mucosa of the trachea

respiratory epithelium + lamina propria

14

function of clara cells

secretes surfactant

15

symptoms (if any) of DVT

- variable swelling (due to increased capillary pressure) - redness (increased blood flow to superficial veins) - discomfort/pain (increased capillary pressure pressing on sensory fibres) - tenderness (increased capillary pressure pressing on sensory fibres)

16

what are some procoagulant genetic causes

- Leiden mutation - prothrombin mutation - deficiencies of anti-thrombin, protein C, protein S - higher factor 8

17

what composes the submucosa of the trachea

glands and conttective tissue

19

how many C shaped rings in the trachea

10-12

21

what is in the interalveolar septum

reticular fibres and elastin fibres - keeps alveoli from collapsing

23

layers of the wall of the trachea

mucosa submucosa adventitia

23

what are the mainr reasons for slowing of blood flow in the veins

- impaired mobility - hyperviscosity of blood (eg polycythaemia) - cardiac failure - dehydration

24

what is thrombophilia

a group of inherited or acquired disorders that increase a person's risk of developing arterial or venous thromboses (venous predominates)

26

most of the respiratory system is lined by

ciliated pseudostratified epithelium

27

epithelium of respiratory broncioles

cuboidal to squamous

28

where does the respiratory part of the lungs start

respiratory bronchioles

30

structure of a bronchus

- initially like trachea, but thinner walls - cartilage rings become cartilage plates - smooth muscle at the boundary between lamina propria and submucosa - glands still present - lymphoid nodules present

32

what factors are associated with early mortality after VTE

PE advanced age cancer underlying CVD

33

how many branches of the respiratory tract

23

34

what composes the adventitia of the trachea

cartilage and outer layer of CT

35

major site of thrombi that embolise to the lungs

systemic veins - particularly the pelvic and deep femoral veins

36

effects of medium sized pulmonary emboli

- dyspnoea, cough, acute cor pulmonale - pulmonary infarction

37

what can happen as a result of PE

- hypoxaemia - local pulmonary artery obstruction --> reflex vasoconstriction - constriction of airways distal to the bronchi - decreased pulmonary compliance due to haemorrhage and loss of surfactant

38

symptoms of PE

-variable dyspnoea - haemoptysis - cough - syncope - pleuritic pain

39

over the length of the bronchioles what happens to the cells

- loses goblet cells and ciliated columnar cells - gains Clara cells

40

what is the non-respiratory function of the lungs

pushes air over the vocal cords leading to vibrations --> sound production

41

reasons for venous thrombosis

endothelial dysfunction or injury - exposure of collage or TF - disruption of balance between pro and anticoagulants hypercoagulability of the blood changes in blood flow due to slowing or turbulence