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Flashcards in HIstology Chapter 1 Deck (63)
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1

Chemical level of organization goes to what higher level of organization?

Cellular level

2

The cellular level of organization goes to what higher level of organization?

Tissue level

3

The tissue level of organization goes to what higher level of organization?

Organ level

4

The organ level of organization goes to what higher level of organization?

Organ system level

5

The organ system level of organization goes to what higher level of organization?

Organismal level

6

Are the heart and the blood vessels the same organ?

No, they are separate.

7

How does light microscopy work?

Specimens are examined via transillumination (i.e. light passing through the specimen to facilitate observation).

8

What are the two types of electron microscopy?

Scanning and Transmission

9

What kind of pseudo images does a SEM create?

Three dimensional

10

What kind of things can atomic force microscopy view?

Molecular structures like DNA

11

What is resolving power/resolution?

Defined as how far two objects must be separated from one another so that they can be distinguished as two distinct objects.

12

What is the resolving power of the human eye?

0.2mm

13

What is the resolving power of a light microscope?

0.2 micrometers

14

What is the resolving power of SEM

2.5nm

15

What is the resolving power of TEM?

0.05nm (theoretical)/ 1.0nm (tissue section)

16

What is the resolving power of atomic force microscopy?

50.0 pm

17

What are five things resolution is dependent upon?

1.optical system, 2.wavelength of light source, 3.specimen, 4.quality of fixation, 5.staining intensity

18

What does a TEM micrograph typically look like in terms of its color?

Black and white

19

What is a structure found in micrographs that can be used for size reference as it is typically one size?

A red blood cell

20

How large is a red blood cell?

7.8 micrometers

21

What are the six steps involved in making a slide for light microscopy?

1.acquisition of cells or tissue, 2.fixation, 3.processing, 4.embedding, 5.sectioning, 6.staining

22

What does "fixation" do when creating a light microscopy slide?

This stops metabolism, kills bacteria and viruses, and helps harden the tissue.

23

What are three examples of chemicals used to "fix" tissues used in light microscopy?

Formalin, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde

24

What do the fixing chemicals do to preserve the tissues?

They cause cross-linking among the proteins which halts their activity.

25

What are the three steps involved during the processing step of tissue to be used in light microscopy?

1.dehydration, 2.clearing, 3.infiltration

26

Explain the dehydration process of tissue used in microscopy slide preparation.

The tissue will be submerged in a graded series of alcohol that removes water and replaces it with alcohol.

27

Explain the clearing process of tissue used in microscopy slide preparation. Also what was the chemical discussed in class?

This is a substance that makes the tissue sample more clear and also is miscible with the paraffin wax used later. The chemical discussed in class was xylene.

28

Explain the embedding process used in microscopy slide preparation.

The tissue is placed into a container that then has hot paraffin wax poured over it.

29

What part of the specimen embedded in paraffin, will eventually be cut and put onto a slide?

The surface of the tissue that is facing down.

30

What is the machine used for sectioning and embedded specimen?

a microtome