Flashcards in Axial Skeleton & Body Cavities Deck (66)
What are the parts of the axial skeleton?
Skull, ribs, vertebra
What does the axial skeleton do?
Comprise the supporting axis of the body and protection of vital organs.
All bones serve to do what?
Serve as reservoirs for calcium and phosphorus, act as levers on which muscles act to produce movement, and are "containers" for blood producing cells
What is the appendicular skeleton?
This is the arms and supporting bones: scapula, clavicle
What is the periosteum?
The fibrous connective tissue that covers the bones.
The skull is comprised of how many bones?
22 main bones and then six total bones of the ears
All of the bones of the skull (except the jaw) are connected by this kind of joint.
What is the viscerocranium?
This is the facial skeleton or the parts of the skeleton that make up the face.
What is the calvaria?
This is the part of the skull that makes up the upper domes portion that covers the cranial cavity containing the brain.
What are the two normal curves of the spine?
Primary curvature (kyphosis) and secondary curvature (lordosis)
Describe the two primary curvatures of the spine.
These curves are the thoracic and sacral/coccygeal primary curves and they form a concave anteriorly.
Describe the two secondary curvatures of the spine.
These curves are the cervical and the lumbar secondary curves and they form a convex anteriorly.
Why does our spine exhibit primary and secondary curvatures?
They bring the center of gravity into a vertical line allowing better balance of body weight on the vertebral column (expending the least amount of energy standing up)
What is the vertebral body?
This is the anterior and major weight bearing component of the bone. It increases in size from C2 to L5.
What is the vertebral arch?
This is the bony structure on the posterior of the vertebra that is firmly anchored to the ventral body by two pedicles, the roof is formed by the two laminae which fuse at the midline.
What is the spinous process?
This is the bony projection that faces posterior and primarily inferiorly from the roof of the vertebral arch.
What is the transverse process?
A part of the vertebra that extends laterally from the region where the lamina meets the pedicle
What are the superior and inferior articular process?
These are parts of the vertebra that will interact with adjacent vertebra
What is the intervertebral foramen?
This is the foramen created by the adjoining vertebra and is where spinal nerves leave the spinal column. There are superior and inferior vertebral notches that make these foramen.
What are some defining feature of cervical vertebra?
Small size, bifid spinous process, transverse process that contain foramen transversarium.
What are some defining features of thoracic vertebra?
Transverse costal facet, superior costal facet (these two things articulate with the rib), a sharp inferior facing spinous process, medium in size
What are some defining features of lumbar vertebra?
Largest in size, their spinous processes project mainly posteriorly, and they do not have transverse costal facets for ribs
What are some defining features of the sacrum?
Large bone composed of 5 fused vertebra, a median sacral crest and a sacral hiatus
What are some defining features of the coccyx?
Small triangular shaped bone composed of 4 rudimentary coccygeal vertebra
What is a defining feature on a rib that will allow you to orient superior from inferior?
The costal groove is always on the inferior of the rib.
What on the spine does the rib articulate with?
Two vertebra and an intervertebral disc
What forms the intercostal groove of a rib?
An intercostal v., a., & n.
What are the atypical ribs?
1, 2, 10, 11, 12
What are the two types of joints?
Synovial and solid