Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

Block I: Reproduction & Sexuality > Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Deck (19):

4 internal organs of the female reproductive system

  • Ovaries
  • Oviducts (Fallopian tubes)
  • Uterus
  • Vagina


Define menarche

The first menstrual flow. At 13 years, this monthly cycle involves the ovary and endometrium in a 28-day hormonally controlled cycle of histological changes


Cause of menopause

Depletion of ovarian follicles and reduction in estrogen production


2 functions of the ovary

  • Gametogenesis (i.e. oogenesis)
  • Steroidogenesis (estrogen, progesterone)


Effect of estradiol on the endometrium

Proliferation and thickening


Effect of progesterone on the endometrium

Appearance of glycogen secreting glands


Concentration of estradiol and progesterone to trigger mensis and why

Decreased concentration in circulation (absence = blood vessels supplying the endometrium constrict --> reduced blood supply --> deteriorate endometrium)


Consequence of low ovarian secretions on the pituitary gland

Secretion of significant levels of FSH


Effect of FSH on the ocarian follicles

  • Stimulation of granulosa cells to proliferate
  • Induction of an aromatizing enzyme, which allows production of estradiol from androgen (from thecal cells)


Day of the menstrual cycle where one follicle becomes dominant and commited to further development

Day 8


Define atresia in terms of the menstrual cycle

In response to FSH drop, remaining follicles in the cohort are arrested await a later FSH stimulus in order to develop further, or begin to degenerate


Effect of the growing follicle's estradiol on the uterine endometrium

  • Proliferation and thickening
  • Induction of receptors for progesterone


Effect of the estradiol produced by the granulosa cells of the developing follicle on the pituitary system (3)

  • Shut off FSH
  • Step up in production of LH (however, inhibits LH release)
  • Increase sensitivity of the pituitary to LHRH


Major event of day 14 of the menstrual cycle

Pituitary releases pent-up LH into circulation --> Rupture of follicle --> ovum release and ruptured follicle becomes a corpus luteum


When is the endometrium fully prepared to receive and support the development of a growing embryo?


WHen it becomes glandular under the influence of progesterone


Consequence of lack of fertilization on the female reproductive system

The egg degenerates and the system enters the luteal phase for a constant 14 days


Consequence of absence of implantation of the female reproductive system


  • The corpus luteum involutes (degenerates)
  • Steroid levels drop
  • The pituitary is ready to produce FSH


Consistency of secretions from the cervix at various phases of the menstrual cycle


  • Estradiol of late follicular phase (days 10-14) = watery and low viscosity
  • Progesterone of early luteal phase = thick viscous (impenetrable by sperm)