Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

Block I: Reproduction & Sexuality > Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Deck (19):
1

4 internal organs of the female reproductive system

  • Ovaries
  • Oviducts (Fallopian tubes)
  • Uterus
  • Vagina

2

Define menarche

The first menstrual flow. At 13 years, this monthly cycle involves the ovary and endometrium in a 28-day hormonally controlled cycle of histological changes

3

Cause of menopause

Depletion of ovarian follicles and reduction in estrogen production

4

2 functions of the ovary

  • Gametogenesis (i.e. oogenesis)
  • Steroidogenesis (estrogen, progesterone)

5

Effect of estradiol on the endometrium

Proliferation and thickening

6

Effect of progesterone on the endometrium

Appearance of glycogen secreting glands

7

Concentration of estradiol and progesterone to trigger mensis and why

Decreased concentration in circulation (absence = blood vessels supplying the endometrium constrict --> reduced blood supply --> deteriorate endometrium)

8

Consequence of low ovarian secretions on the pituitary gland

Secretion of significant levels of FSH

9

Effect of FSH on the ocarian follicles

  • Stimulation of granulosa cells to proliferate
  • Induction of an aromatizing enzyme, which allows production of estradiol from androgen (from thecal cells)

10

Day of the menstrual cycle where one follicle becomes dominant and commited to further development

Day 8

11

Define atresia in terms of the menstrual cycle

In response to FSH drop, remaining follicles in the cohort are arrested await a later FSH stimulus in order to develop further, or begin to degenerate

12

Effect of the growing follicle's estradiol on the uterine endometrium

  • Proliferation and thickening
  • Induction of receptors for progesterone

13

Effect of the estradiol produced by the granulosa cells of the developing follicle on the pituitary system (3)

  • Shut off FSH
  • Step up in production of LH (however, inhibits LH release)
  • Increase sensitivity of the pituitary to LHRH

14

Major event of day 14 of the menstrual cycle

Pituitary releases pent-up LH into circulation --> Rupture of follicle --> ovum release and ruptured follicle becomes a corpus luteum

15

When is the endometrium fully prepared to receive and support the development of a growing embryo?

 

WHen it becomes glandular under the influence of progesterone

16

Consequence of lack of fertilization on the female reproductive system

The egg degenerates and the system enters the luteal phase for a constant 14 days

17

Consequence of absence of implantation of the female reproductive system

 

  • The corpus luteum involutes (degenerates)
  • Steroid levels drop
  • The pituitary is ready to produce FSH

18

Consistency of secretions from the cervix at various phases of the menstrual cycle

 

  • Estradiol of late follicular phase (days 10-14) = watery and low viscosity
  • Progesterone of early luteal phase = thick viscous (impenetrable by sperm)

19