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Flashcards in History - Chapter 1 Deck (52):
1

Portuguese traveler who in 1448 attempted to reach Asia by sailing down the coast of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa)

Bartholomew Diaz

2

A series of holy wars waged to capture the holy land from the Muslims and drive them out of Western Europe

Crusades

3

Portuguese traveler who in 1498 repeated the same trip as Bartholomew Diaz who attempted to reach Asia by sailing down the coast of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa) then farther east to India

Vasco da Gama

4

The Norse (or Viking) explorer who is among the first Europeans to travel to the newly discovered lands

Leif Ericson

5

Italian sailor who in 1492 led an expedition of 3 ships under the flag of a Spain to find a more direct route with Asia. After traveling a month at sea he landed in the present day Bahamas

Christopher Columbus

6

Italian explorer who led Portuguese and Spanish expeditions along the coast of South America

Amerigo Vespucci

7

Small bands of private soldiers or adventures who pushed the Spanish claim for land riches in Central America, South America, and the North American southwest.

They killed and enslaved the native populations they encountered, taking control of the land and extracting gold and silver from the New World to enrich themselves Spain in the Roman Catholic Church

Conquistadors

8

Conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire of Mexico in 1519

Hernando Cortez

9

Conquistador who brought down the Inca empire of Peru in 1531 through 1535

Francisco Pizarro

10

Conquistador who explored the Florida Peninsula in 1513

Juan Ponce de Leon

11

Spanish conquistador who traveled throughout the south eastern region of North America in 1539 through 1542

Hernando de Soto

12

Conquistador who explored the North American Southwest in 1540-1542

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

13

Italian sailor who explored for the French the New World in 1524 searching for a Northwest passage through North America to reach Asia

Giovanni da Verrazano

14

French explorer who in 1535-1536 explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the St Lawrence River

Jacques Cartier

15

French explorer known as the father of New France (French possessions in North America) who founded Quebec in 1608

Samuel de Champlain

16

English privateer, or Sea Dog, who (with the blessings of Queen Elizabeth) raided Spanish ships and the New World settlements for gold and silver.

He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth of England

Francis Drake

17

1st British settlement established in 1586 on an island off the coast of present day North Carolina.

Consisted of 117 people under leadership of Governor John White

Roanoke Island

18

Governor of the first English settlement called Roanoke Island.

His daughter was the first English child born in North America

Governor John White

19

First English born child born in North America. Grand daughter of Governor John White

Virginia Dare

20

First permanent English settlement in North America established by the Virginia Company in the colony of Virginia in 1607

Jamestown

21

English soldier who emerged as a leader in Jamestown and then is to bring order and discipline to a starving, chaotic, fearfulpeople

Captain John Smith

22

Early settler who developed a variety of tobacco in Virginia

John Rolfe

23

Southern colony founded in 1634 by the Calvert family of England as a refuge for British Catholics

Maryland

24

Chartered in 1663 to create a buffer zone between hostile Indians and the more settled populations of Virginia

Carolina

25

They came a separate colony in 1719 and was settled by planters from Barbados

South Carolina

26

Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 it between the last of the original 13 British colonies in the North American mainland and the final southern colony

Georgia

27

The idea that colonies should complement and supplement but not compete with the economy of the mother country

Mercantilism

28

A group of religious dissenters who left England in 1620 for the New World were the established a colony of Plymouth

Leaving the church of England to be corrupt the settlers intended to separate themselves from the church

They became more widely known as pilgrims because they traveled on a long religious journey called a pilgrimage to reach America

Separatists

29

They traveled on a long religious journey and were also known as separatists

They crossed the Atlantic Ocean in a tiny ship called the mayflower

Led by William Bradford

Pilgrims

30

The name of the ship that the pilgrims used to cross to cross the Atlantic Ocean

Mayflower

31

The agreement that the pilgrims made on which they agreed to abide by laws made by their own elected officials once they reached America

The Mayflower compact

32

A colony that later absorbed Plymouth

Massachusetts Bay colony

33

A famous Puritan who was a leader in the Massachusetts Bay colony

John Winthrop

34

Like the separatists, these people believed the church of England to be corrupt but instead of separating from the church they intended to purify it

The Puritans

35

Trade routes by which the new Englanders sold rum to traders (both European and African) on the west coast of Africa, with which they bartered for slaves who then traded in sold in the West Indies. From there the colonists purchased molasses which they brought back to New England in order to make more rum

Triangular trade

36

New England colony founded by Roger Williams and in Hutchinson both of whom religious dissenters from the Puritan theocracy in Massachusetts

Rhode Island

37

Helped found Rhode Island.

Was banished from the Puritan (Massachusetts) colony in 1635

Roger Williams

38

Helped found Rhode Island.

Was banished from the Puritan (Massachusetts) colony in 1638

Anne Hutchinson

39

Established in 1637 by settlers led by Thomas Hooker who left Massachusetts in 1633

Connecticut

40

Which two colonies were primarily settled by immigrants from the Massachusetts Bay colony with both colonies involved in controversy with Massachusetts over boundaries and their own independent existence

One of these states was eventually absorbed back into Massachusetts

New Hampshire and Maine

41

A member of the society of friends, or Quakers, who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681 as a refuge for Quakers who were persecuted and discriminated against in England

William Penn

42

This middle colony was founded by William Penn in 1681 as a refuge for Quakers

Pennsylvania

43

A middle colony which was originally settled by the Dutch in new Netherland in 1624 but was later surrendered to the British and New Amsterdam in 1664

New York

44

He began the settlement at New Amsterdam in 1626

Governor Peter Minuit

45

This middle colony was created when the duke of York granted land to other British nobels which were later united in 1702 to form this colony

New Jersey

46

This middle colony was originally settled by Swedish immigrants as new Sweden but was later separated from Pennsylvania in 1701 to function as its own colony

Delaware

47

A set of British laws governing the conduct of trade and commerce in empire

Navigation acts

48

The tendency for the British government overlook violations of the law and it's far flung colonies

Salutary neglect

49

The British legislative branch of government

Parliament

50

This region developed large family farms and was often called the breadbasket.

Commercial agriculture played a large role in the prosperity of this colony and one of its Philadelphia would become a major port city

Middle colonies

51

This region was known for it shipping and commerce

New England colonies

52

This region was known for tobacco as its principal cash crop and its plantation system for growing the tobacco

Southern colonies