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Flashcards in History of medicine Deck (21):

Who developed the first rational way of explaining the causes of disease and what was it called?

Hippocrates, the Four Humours


Why did it remain superiorly important in Medieval Britain?

It was a non-religious theory that the Church allowed, it was not an idea that was banned.


What new theories developed the Renaissance?

Contagion and that there might be seeds in the air that caused disease.


How did Thomas Sydenham, in 1676, challenge the very basis of the Four Humours?

He argued disease was something that attacked the body, not something that happened because of imbalances with in.


What did Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, in 1702, claim he could see through a microscope?

Animalcules on food


What theory was increasingly popular for explaining animalcules around 1800?

Spontaneous Generation


What year did germ theory get published and by who?

1861 - Louis Pasteur


What were the “four principles of germ theory”?

1. Germs are everywhere around us in the air, 2.Germs cause decay, decay does not “spontaneously” generate them, 3.Germs are not evenly distributed, 4.Germs can be killed by heating them up.


Who discovered specific germs that causes specific disease?

Robert Koch


How did people try to stop bad air (miasma) from displeasing God in Medieval times?

They would burn herbs and incense.


What was the name of the guidance given by the Church on staying clean and what did the guidance include?

Regimen Sanitatis - it included a guide on bathing, but making sure to pray beforehand.


What methods of preventing illness became more popular during the Renaissance?

Quarantining sick people and avoiding mess / bad air all together.


During which century did inoculation become popular in Britain?

During the 18th century, the 1700s.
The name of a popular inoculator was Thomas Dimsdale.


When did Edward Jenner discover the Smallpox vaccination?



What happened to vaccines after germ theory in 1861?

Other vaccines could be produced why weakening specific germs. For example, Pasteur created the chicken cholera vaccine in 1879.


What did people believe about the power of the King’s hands during Medieval times (and, in fact, during the Renaissance too)

As he was God’s representative, he would have the power to heal.


Describe as precisely as you can, two popular treatments based on the four humours that were widely used in Medieval times and the Renaissance

Bleeding and purging. Patients would be bled by cutting a vein, using leeches to suck blood or cupping. Purging would involve and enema created by using herbs such as linseed and, in the Renaissance, coffee.


Describe the growth of chemical chemistry as a new form of treatment in the Renaissance.

Chemical chemistry was made famous by Paracelsus in 1526 and became more popular in the 1600s. It involved experimenting with chemicals like arsenic, mercury and antimony.


What was the name of the book published in 1618 that included details on 122 chemical treatments

The Pharmacopoeia Londinensis


What was discovered about antibodies in the late 19th century?

The body created these to fight off disease.
A successful chemical cure would need to be a man-made one of these.


Name three chemical cures, in time order, developed in the 20th century.

Salvarsan 606, Prontosil, Penicillin.