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Flashcards in Cold War Deck (78):

In what year of World War Two did the USA and the USSR end up on the same side?



Why were the countries not natural friends?

I.The USA had lost lots of money when the USSR had turned Communist in 1917.
II.The USA were close friends with Britain and relatives of the British royal family were killed in the Russian Revolution.


What was their “team of countries” (including Britain) known as?

“The big three” or the Grand Alliance.


What was held towards the end of the war to try and continue cooperation between the countries?

Wartime conferences.
Tehran - 1943
Yalta - Feb 1945
Potsdam - Jul-Aug 1945


Why were the USA and the USSR the only Superpowers in the world at the end of World War Two?

Other countries were a lot weaker compared to them.


What exactly is a “Superpower” when talking about countries?

A country with financial, military and cultural influence.


What began to happen between 1945 and 1948?

A Cold War developed between the USA and the USSR.


What was the attitude of the Superpowers throughout the 1950s?

Only cooperate if it is not at the expense of becoming weaker than the other.


What took place in the 1960s?

A series of crisis moments that meant the war almost became a real one.


What happened in the 1970s?

They tried to calm down the Cold War.


What happened in the 1980s?

The USA started the Cold War again after the USSR invaded Afghanistan.


What broke up in 1989?

The influence the USSR had over Eastern Europe collapsed.


What “collapsed” in 1991?



When did President Roosevelt die and what had his attitude to the USSR been?

After the Yalta Conference in 1945. He had had a good relationship with the leader of the USSR in WW2, Stalin.


When was President Truman in office and what were his feelings towards Communism/USSR?

1945 - 1953. He was suspicious of Communism and Stalin.


What was Truman’s “Truman Doctrine”?

From 1947 onwards, he made it USA action to “contain” (prevent) the spread of Communism


When was President Nixon in office and what was his attitude towards the USSR?

The 1970s. He wanted to find a way to build a working partnership with the USSR.


When was Jimmy Carter President and what was the “Carter Doctrine” he developed?

1976 - 1981. The Carter Doctrine was a return to “containing” Communism after 1979.


When was President Reagan in office and what was his attitude towards communism and the USSR?

1981-1989. He wanted to go further than containing Communism, he wanted to defeat it.


What did Stalin want to make sure for the USSR at the end of World War Two and when did he he die?

He wanted to make sure the USSR was safe from aggression. He died in 1953.


When was Khrushchev’s time as Premier and how was he less “hardline” than Stalin?

Khrushchev became leader in 1956. He wanted peaceful cooperation with the USA but not if it meant being weaker than them.


When did Brezhnev become Premier of the USSR and what was his “Brezhnev Doctrine” (1968)?

After 1963. His doctrine that any Communist country could only do Communism the way the USSR does it.


How was Gorbachev different to the other Soviet leaders?

He allowed more openness of the government and he introduced some capitalism into the USSR.


Who became President of Russia once
Gorbachev resigned in 1991?

Boris Yeltsin.


How was a capitalist country like the USA run?

I.Personal freedoms
II.Private businesses
III.Private wealth


How was a communist country like the USSR run?

I.Restriction on freedoms (e.g. speech)
II.Government owns everything
III.Government makes big decisions for people


What reasons, going as far back as 1917, did the USA and the USSR have for not being natural friends?

I.The USA had lots of money invested in Russia before it became the Communist USSR in 1917. They lost it all.

II.The USA were good friends with Britain and the Communists had killed the Russian royal family, who were relations of the British royal family.


What were the three conferences held between 1943 and 1945 to discuss the future of the world after WW2?



What was agreed at the Tehran Conference in 1943?

I.The Grand Alliance agreed to cooperate.
II.The USA and GB would invade Nazi occupied France at the earliest chance.
III.the USSR would attack Japan.
IV.They would set up the UN.


What was agreed at the Yalta Conference in Feb 1945?

I.Germany would be split into four zones and Berlin would be split into four, despite being in the USSR’s zone.
II.USSR would attack Japan
III.German war criminal would be punished
IV.Free elections in occupied countries
V.Free elections in Poland


Who replaced FDR as President of the USA for the Potsdam Conference?

Truman (suspicious of Communism and did not like Stalin)


What created tension at the Potsdam Conference in Jul-Aug 1945?

I.Change of leaders
II.Stalin wanted influence in Poland
III.The USA used the atom bomb on Japan without telling the USSR.


When did the USA use the atomic bombs on Japan and what war ended as a result of their use?

August 1945, during the Potsdam Conference. WW2 came to an end.


What were two consequences of the USA using the atomic bomb against Japan?

I.The USSR built their own and the arms race began.

II. The USSR tightened its control over countries it occupied in Eastern Europe.


In what year did the USSR get its own atomic bomb?



What did George Kennan’s Long Telegram say about the USSR in 1946?

The USSR was expanding its control and was aggressively trying to take over land in Europe.


What did the USSR’s Novikov telegram say about the USA in reply?

The USA were aggressive and looking to dominate the world with its power.


What Eastern European countries became Satellite States of the USSR up to 1948?

Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria


Give examples of how different countries, especially Poland, came to be Satellite States

I.Rigged elections.

II.Communists taking key roles in coalition governments.

III.The Red Army.


What did Winston Churchill famously say, in 1946, was happening in Europe?

An ‘Iron Curtain’ was developing between free capitalist countries and Communist countries.


How did the USA view the USSR’s creation of “Satellite States”?

I.As an aggressive move – empire building


What was Stalin’s justification for Satellite States?

I.That it was a buffer against future invasion.

II.Communism was good for the people.


What was the main message of the Truman Doctrine Speech in 1947?

To contain/stop the spread of communism


What was happening in Greece and Turkey that moved him to make the speech when he did?

I.Civil War and Communist uprisings.

II.Britain couldn’t deal with the situation so the USA had to do the “Superpower” thing by stepping in.


What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?

To help Europe recover from war and stop communism


What are three examples of countries got money as a consequence of the Marshall Plan?

I.UK - $3,297 million
II.West Germany - $1,448 million
III.France - $2,296 million


What was the importance of the Marshall Plan for the world?

I.It increased the USSR’s determination to secure influence of its own.

II.It increased the divide between Communist and capitalist countries because the USSR pressured their satellite states to reject Marshall Aid.

III.It led to the USSR setting up cominform and then later comecon.


What country had a Communist takeover in February 1948?



What was the purpose of the USSR’s Cominform?

To spread communism and organised the economies of communist states


What was the USSR’s alternative to the Marshall Plan, set up in 1949?



How was Germany divided at the end of WW2?

Into four zones. A French one, a British one, an American one and a Russian one.


When was bizonia and trizonia (joining of the three capitalist zones) created with the western zones of Germany?



When did the western zones introduce a new currency and what was the importance of this? How did Stalin respond, in June 1948?

June 1947 – it made the West noticeably richer than the East.

He blocked off West Berlin in an attempt to force the West out of the city.


How did the USA respond?

Airlifted supplies into the city on a constant flight rotation for many months.


What was formed on the 23rd May, three days after the end of the Blockade?



What was the importance of the Blockade for relations between the USSR and the USA?

I.It showed how low relations had got between the USA and the USSR.

II.It increased tension because it made the USSR look like the bad guys and the USA look like the good guys for trying to break the Blockade.


Which countries joined NATO (1949)?

Lots, including – USA, France, GB, Iceland, Canada ... (West Germany didn’t join until 1955)


What countries joined the Warsaw Pact (1955)

Poland, USSR, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia East Germany etc


What was the purpose of each?

Defence against the other


What had started the arms race back in 1945?

The USA’s development and use of an atomic bomb


How much more powerful was the hydrogen bomb the USA developed in 1952?



What did the USSR develop in 1953?



What is an ICBM?

Inter-continental ballistic missile. A missile that can fly between continents


When was the first American ICBM developed?



What failed to be agreed at a summit meeting in July 1955?



What was the secret speech?

A speech by Khrushchev which announced peaceful coexistence and destalinisation


Why did peaceful coexistence not work out?

It was a contradiction. It was based on there being cooperation but at the same time there was no question that Khrushchev would do anything that would make the USSR look bad or weak in comparison to the the Americans.


Why were the people of Hungary unhappy in 1956?

I.The brutal secret police
II.Poor living conditions
III.Their economy was being exploited by the USSR - food and raw materials were being taken by the USSR


Who replaced Rakosi as leader of the country?



What did supporters of Nagy do when they saw Soviet tanks and soldiers?

Fought them – often with homemade bombs


Why did the USA not want to get involved (two reasons)?

I.Fear of Nuclear war
II.Hungary was in the Soviet ‘sphere’ of influence
III.The Americans were more occupied with a crisis in Egypt over ownership of the Suez canal.


What was the standard of living like in East Germany?



Why did skilled workers particularly want to leave East Germany?

For better pay and greater freedoms


Why were older and more vulnerable people happy to stay in East Germany?

They were supported by the state. They knew they would have an apartment etc.


What was Khrushchev’s ultimatum over the city of Berlin, issued on the 27th November 1958?

That the allies should leave the city to make it a neutral free city.


Due to the fact no side, the east or the west wanted a war, what took place to try to sort out the issue of Berlin?

The Paris and Vienna Summits


What major event led to a breakdown in relations during talks in Paris in May 1960?

An American spy plane was shot down in the USSR


How did US President Kennedy appear tough and determined over Berlin at talks with Khrushchev in Vienna in 1961?

He refused to withdraw western forces from Berlin and increased defence spending