History Unit 3- Era Of The Great War Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in History Unit 3- Era Of The Great War Deck (28)
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Life in the Trenches

Boring, cold food
Water tasted of petrol
No toilets and lack of clean water
Disease spread quickly- rats, lice
Trench foot and shell shock
Wounded men usually dies of infections
Constant fear of death
Dull, very monotonous


Give reasons why Scots volunteered to fight on the Western Front

Powerful propaganda- military pride

Sense of pride

Not joining was seen as shameful

People judged men who didn't go to war

Poverty- way to better yourself

Pals Battalion- fight with your friends

A chance to travel and see foreign places


What was Scottish society like before 1914?

Industry had begun to struggle. Raw materials like coal were running out.

Work on conditions and pay were low so workforces often went on strike to try and improve things

People were poor because the living cost was high and the working wages were low

Many cities were overpopulated, 13% of the population in 1911 lived in overcrowded conditions

Houses became slums and disease spread quickly, people didn't live for very long

Foreign goods were cheaper than good made in Britain due to cheaper workforces


What caused World War One?

Militarism- military concerns influenced Germany's and Britain's policy, giving them the means and will to make war

Alliances- Germany, Italy and Austria formed the triple alliance. France Britain and Russia created the triple ententé. Europe was divided

Imperialism- the desire to conquer countries brought the powers into conflict, particularly Germany against France and Britain

Nationalism- people believed their country was better than others which meant nations were assertive and aggressive


Reasons for general Haig's tactics

Learnt from his mistakes and changed his tactics accordingly

Used a combination of methods to launch successful attacks against the enemy


Reasons against Haig's tactics

Overestimated the cavalry at the start of WW1

Underestimated the impact of modern weapons

Huge losses in the Somme and Passchendale

His tactics arguably wasted hundreds of lives


Technology- artillery
What are the positives and negatives?

Wide range and accurate
Killed a large amount of enemy soldiers

If the range was incorrect it could lead to men being killed or wounded by their own artillery


Technology- gas
What are the positives and negatives?

Little effort yet very effective
Long painful deaths- caused fear
Caused lung damage

Unpredictable weapon
If the wind changed the gas would blow back on the men who had fired it
It became less effective as both sides developed gas masks


Technology- tanks
What are the positives and negatives?

Were all terrain- slopes and grass
Firing range of 30km
Caused fear

Very slow
Quick to run out of fuel
Prone to mechanical problems


Technology- aeroplanes
What are the positives and negatives?

Gathered intelligence
Could carry bombs
Fitted with machine guns


When did the battle of Loos take place?



Give 5 bits of information about the battle of Loos

Gas was used by the British for the first time

30,000 Scottish troops were involved

The battle was indecisive

High losses of troops

The troops captured Loos but had to return 4 days later due to exhaustion


When did the battle of the Somme take place?



Give 5 bits of information about the battle of The Somme

Not much land was gained however the split of the German army was weakened

Part of the aim was to help the French allies who had been attacked

20,000 British soldiers were killed on the first day

Pressure was taken off the French

General Haig hoped to use overwhelming force against the German lines to capture them


When the the battle of Arras take places?



Give 5 bits of information about the battle of Arras

Contained more scots fighting in one place than any other point in the war

Attack was successful due to new tactics and artillery fire

The attack was well planned

One third of the casualties were scots

The assaults taught the British lessons, that using 'all arms' together in arak helped to win the war


How did women contribute during WW1?

They worked in factories making explosives and shells- canary girls

Worked as nurses and doctors- Elsie ingles set up a hospital in France near the western front

Worked as conductresses on buses and trams

Did land work- the woman's land army, had their own uniform and 260,000 members

Cooks in the armed forces

Wireless operators in the armed forces


Give 6 facts about DORA

The government had the power to direct men, women and materials to areas where they were most needed to win the war effort

Railways and docks came under military law. Special police constables were recruited to enforce the new laws

The government took control of pubs and reduced the opening hours. Pubs were forbidden to open on a Sunday

Censorship was introduced to stop newspapers printing information that may be helpful to the enemy

Local councils were allowed to take over land and use it to grown more food

Foreign citizens had to register as aliens at the local police station


Give 5 bits of information about rationing in WW1

Germans sunk ships to stop food coming into Britain: they wanted to starve the country into submission

Standard bread was introduced and butter was replaced by margarine

Rationing cards were introduced

Gardens and parks were adapted for growing food

The black market thrived


What was the effect of military losses on Scottish society?

Often whole villages of men were killed at war due to pals battalions

Women had to take on men's roles

The population decreased drastically- Glasgow lost 18,000 men during WWI

By 1918 nearly every family was mourning the loss of a loved one

Women had to resign themselves to the fact that they may never marry

Memorials were erected and remembrance Sunday began


Impact of the war on Scottish industries

There was a rising demand for workers and almost no unemployment

Many jobs were skilled and offered good wages to the workers

There was a high demand for ships during the war so there there a greater need for homes and goods in the Clydesdale area as people flocked to live there

Ammunition production led to a doubling of steel output

By 1918 Glasgow steel workers are produced 90% of Britain's armour plate

Textile factories rushed to meet army demand for uniforms and canvas materials


Scottish industry after the war- give 6 facts

Agricultural industries turned to new products like fruit and poultry

New machines increased the output and fewer workers were required

Heavy industries declined. Locomotive production fell by two thirds

Coal production also decreased by around 25 tonnes since 1913

Wage cuts lead to strikes, giving Scotland the reputation as a troublesome place to do business

The jute industry faced competition from India as India started building it own jute mills


What happened to Scotland's economy after the war?

The economy failed to adapt in the early 20th century. Almost all industry in Scotland was centred around heavy industry. When these industries were no longer in demand Scotland was unprepared and couldn't adapt quickly enough.

There were also challenges posed by foreign industries, and new fuels were introduced

The Scots failed to invest in new technology


What were the improvements to women's rights by 1910?

Women could vote in elections to school boards

Women could vote in local elections if they paid rates

Women could divorce their husbands and retain their children

When women married they could now keep their own money and property

Women could go to university

Women could become doctors, teacher and lawyers


Why did women receive the vote after the war?

Due to the success of the suffragette campaign

Women's hard work during the war convinced people they were responsible and able bodied

Prime minister Asquith changed to supporting women's rights to vote

Women replaced men and worked well, which changed public and government view

The suffragettes grabbed people's attention and forced them to listen, although they did use illegal methods


Impact of the war on politics- how did the war impact the liberals?

War led to a split in the liberals due to coalition government

Asquith was forced to resign as prime minister

The party was divided between supporters of Asquith and George


Impact of the war on politics- how did the war impact the Conservatives?

The party gained support
The party appealed to female voters
They appealed to young Scots who wanted success in life


Impact of the war on politics- how did the war impact the Labour Party?

The party grew in importance after WWI

Joined a coalition government

They listened to trade unions and worked with them

Introduced a minimum wage and control of industry