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Edexcel GCSE History- Weimar and Nazi Germany > Hitler's Rise to Power- shit > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hitler's Rise to Power- shit Deck (93)
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1

Where and when was Hitler born?

In Braunau, Austria on the 20th April 1889

2

How did Hitler come to fight for Germany in World War One?

In 1913, Hitler moved to Munich and when war broke out he became a soldier. He was injured twice and received the Iron Cross for his bravery. According to his commander, he was brave, effective and conscientious.

3

What happened imminently to Hitler after World War One?

He was recovering from Gas Poisoning in hospital. When he recovered, the army put him to work keeping an eye on local political activists in the area. Hitler began to attend German Workers' Party (DAP) meetings as part of this

4

How was the DAP set up?

It was founded in Munich, February 1919 by Anton Drexler, a railway mechanic.

5

What were the first DAP meetings like?

The first DAP meeting, also attended by Hitler, had 23 people turn up. It took place on the 12th September 1919. At the third meeting, the treasurer announced that the total party funds sat at seven marks and 50 pfennigs.

6

When and why did Hitler join the DAP?

Hitler joined the DAP on the 19th September 1919 as he was attracted by the party's ideas

7

What happened in January and February 1920 within the DAP?

In January 1920, Hitler became head of the propaganda for the party . In February, Hitler and Drexler wrote the Party's twenty-five point program, a document explaining the policies of the DAP.

8

What was the 25 point program strongly opposed to?

-the Weimar Politicians
-democracy
-the Jews

9

Within two years, Hitler had taken control of the DAP and shaped it into the Nazi party. What were the five parts to this take over?

-Party policy (twenty-five point programme)
-Hitler's personal appeal
-Party organisation
-Party leadership
-The Sturmabteilung (SA) or 'Brownshirts'

10

How did Hitler use his own appeal as an orator (public speaker) to attract support?

-He rehearsed his speeches carefully. They usually built tension to a frenzied rant at the end. They were very
persuasive
-He used gestures. At first, he would lean forward and fix his eyes on his audience, drawing them in. Towards the end of his speeches, his hands would wave furiously in the air
-He had publicity photos and paintings produced showing him as an orator

11

What is nationalism and socialism?

Nationalism- A political outlook in which all policies are organised to make a nation stronger and more independent
Socialism- A political outlook which stresses that a country's land, industries and wealth should all belong to the workers of that country

12

Did Hitler's personal appeal gain support for the DAP?

At the 46 party gatherings held between November 1919 and November 1920, Hitler appeared on 31 occasions as the star speaker. The DAP grew 1,000 members by June 1920 and 3,000 by the end of the 1920s.

13

By 1920, Hitler was Drexler's right hand man, what change was introduced to the DAP in January 1920?

The DAP set up a permanent office in Munich. Hitler chose Rudolf Schussler, a friend from the army, as the party's first full time administrator. The party's meetings were now better organised and advertised. Funds and memberships increased

14

Why did the DAP change its name?

Hitler suggested a new name for the party. He thought it should be called the Nationalist, Socialist, German Worker's Part as the two main pillars of the twenty-five point programme were nationalism and socialism. It helped clarify the party's policy and appealed to more people. Support increased

15

What made the NSDAP more distinguished from the other small nationalist parties in German politics?

They adopted its characteristic logo, the Swastika and its straight-armed party salute

16

What did the party do in December 1920, to increase the party's publicity?

It bought the Volkischer Beobachter (The People's Observer) newspaper. It cost 180,000 marks and the initial circulation of the paper was 11,000 copies but within a year it had reached 17,000 copies. The voice of the NSDAP was now widely heard in Munich, across Bavaria and some other parts of Germany

17

What happened in July 1921 within the NSDAP?

Hitler forced a leadership contest and defeated Drexler to become head of the party. He surrounded himself with supporters to help him lead the party

18

Who were the new appointed sub-leaders for Hitler in 1921, what were they like?

Rudolf Hess- a wealthy academic, who became Hitler's deputy
Hermann Goering- a young, dashing and wealthy First World War pilot
Julius Streicher- a publisher who founded another Nazi newspaper, Der Sturmer (The Stormer)
Ernst Rohm- a scar-faced, bull necked ex-army officer who was popular among ex-soldiers

Hitler also made powerful friends for the party, such as General Ludendorff, leader of the German Army during World War One

19

What was Julius Streicher's importance in the NSDAP?

-He joined the party in 1922, he was ex-army and had also been awarded the iron cross. He was already a nationalist politician
-The NSDAP doubled overnight after Streicher brought his supporters with him. It also extended the geographical appeal of the party as Streicher brought supporters from Franconia, in central Germany
-In 1923, Der Sturmer was founded. It screamed abuse at the Jews and Communists. By 1927, it had 14,000 copies in circulation

20

What were the Sturmabteilung(SA or 'Stormtroopers)?

The Sturmabteilung were a paramilitary force formed in August 1921. Many of the recruits were from the unemployed and were ex-soldiers or students. They dressed in brown uniforms and were nicknamed the 'Brownshirts'. Ernst Rohm was in charge of the SA

21

What did the SA do to help the NSDAP?

The SA paraded in the streets as a show of force. By August 1922, they numbered about 800 and impressed people with a sense of power and organisation. At NSDAP meetings, the SA were used to control the crowds, subduing any opposition to Hitler. They were also sent to disrupt opposition meetings. Therefore, the SA strengthened the NSDAP

22

How did the SA help Hitler?

The SA were obedient to Hitler as well as Rohm. Hitler selected trusted members of the SA to be his personal bodyguards. They were known as the Stosstrupp (Shock Troop). Hitler controlled the NSDAP like a military leader.

23

What was Hitler's control like at the NSDAP party conference in January 1922?

He persuaded the members to give up their right to elect a leader. There was no discussion of policy at the conference: Hitler dictated policy in a 2hrs 30mins speech.

24

What were the longer term causes of the Munich Putsch which occurred in November 1923 (aka Beer Hall Putsch)?

-From 1918-1923 there were a long lost of grievances such as the 'stab in the back', reparations and loss of Germany's colonies which had been building up. Amongst Germans, there was a deep resentment of the Weimar Republic.
-From 1919-1923 the NSDAP had been growing in its Munich base in Bavaria, south Germany. Bavarian state government leaders, like Gustav von Kahr, were no fans of the Weimar government. They shared some of the NSDAP's views and turned a blind eye to the violence of the SA. By 1923, the NSDAP had 50,000 members

25

What were the medium-term causes of the Munich Putsch?

-From 1921-1922, Hitler and the NSDAP were heavily influenced by the far-right fascist group in Italy, led by Mussolini.
-Their salute and flag was modelled by the Italian Fascists.
-In 1922, Mussolini led his paramilitary forces in a 'march on Rome' forcing the democratic government of Italy to accept him as their leader

26

What were the short-term causes of the Munich Putsch?

-Hyperinflation made buying things almost impossible, people's savings were useless
-The 1923 French invasion of the German industrial area of the Ruhr caused the arresting, imprisonment and deportation of some workers.
-German people were bitterly aggrieved by these events. The Weimar Republic seemed weak and unable to solve problems. It was time to exploit the grievances,

27

What was occurring on the evening of the 8th November, 1923 in the Beer Hall , in Munich?

Bavarian government officials were meeting, Gustav von Kahr was the main speaker and others included von Seisser (head of Bavarian police) and von Lossow (head of the German Army in Bavaria).
Hitler then burst in, supported by 600 members of the SA. He shot the ceiling and declared he would take over Bavaria and then Germany. Ludendorff, would become the leader of the German Army

28

What did Hitler demand Kahr, Seisser and Lossow do in the Burgerbrau Keller?

At gunpoint, he demanded they all should support him. Being overpowered, they reluctantly shook hands. Meanwhile, Rohm and his SA took over the local poice and army headquarters

29

What mistake did Hitler and Ludendorff make during the Munich Putsch?

They failed to take over the army barracks who remained loyal to the Government and Ludendorff released Kahr, Seisser and Lossow. They also expected lots of support from local people and officials but they were to be disappointed

30

What happened in the lead up to the events that ensued in the main square in Munich 1923?

-At 5 am Hitler and his supporters gathered to launch their attack on the streets of Munich
-After much hesitation, at Midday, Hitler continued with his revolt with the support of 1000 SA and 2000 volunteer supporters
-They robbed two local Jewish banks to pay the supporters. Together, Hitler, Ludendorff, Goering, Rohm and Streicher and their followers all marched on the town centre