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1

The endocrine system is composed of ___________ that secrete chemical messengers called __________ into the blood.

ductless glands, hormones

2

The endocrine system is controlled by a?

Feedback mechanism

3

The endocrine system consists includes?

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and other endocrine glands

4

Hormones are?

Chemical substances produced by cells in one part of the body and transported to another part of the body where they influence cellular activity.

5

Two major control systems linked together by the hypothalamus?

Nervous and endocrine

6

Endocrine glands

Pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, ovaries, testes, pancreas, kidneys

7

Hormones administered for two basic reasons

Correct a deficiency and achieve a desired effect

8

Administered hormones

Exogenous

9

Naturally produced

Endogenous

10

Endogenous hormones are?

Naturally produced

11

Exogenous hormones are?

Administered

12

Master gland

Pituitary

13

Two lobes of the pituitary

Adenohypophysis
Nerohypophysis

14

Hypothalamus

Exerts control over anterior pituitary lobe
Uses releasing hormones of factors

15

The anterior pituitary lobe releases ______ hormones into the circulation.

trophic

16

Anterior pituitary lobe stimulates?

target organs

17

Feedback loops may be either?

Positive or negative

18

What feedback loop is more common?

Negative

19

What feedback loop responds to low or high levels of hormone in the body?

Negative

20

What feedback look occurs when hormone levels continue to rise in response to stimuli?

Positive

21

What gland is controlled by hypothalamus by releasing factors?

Pituitary

22

Anterior pituitary lobe

Adenohypophysis

23

Posterior pituitary lobe

Neurohypophysis

24

Adenohypophysis releases _______ hormones

TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, LTH, and GH

25

Adenohypophysis is _____ acting

indirect

26

What part of the pituitary gland causes target organ to release another hormone to cause an action?

Anterior/ Adenohypophysis

27

What part of the pituitary gland secretes ADH and oxytocin?

Posterior/ Neurohypophysis

28

Neurohypophysis is _______ acting

direct

29

What part of the pituitary gland produces and effect directly on an organ?

Posterior/ Neurohypophysis

30

TSH=

Thyroid stimulating hormone

31

ACTH=

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

32

FSH=

Follicle stimulating hormone

33

LH=

Luteinizing hormone

34

GH=

Growth hormone

35

TSH is used in?

Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism

36

ACTH is used?

To stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids in the diagnosis of adrenal cortex disease.

37

GH is used?

To increase growth rate and feed use efficiency in livestock and increase milk production in dairy cows.

38

ADH=

Anti Diuretic Hormone

39

ADH is used?

To treat diabetes insipidus

40

Diabetes insipidus is?

A disease characterized by the inability to concentrate urine due to insufficient amounts of ADH.

41

Oxytocin is used?

To aid in uterine contraction and induce labor labor in animals at term, expel the placenta, induce milk letdown, and as an adjunct therapy for animals with open pyometra.

42

What feedback loop has adequate amounts in plasma signal to decrease production?

Negative

43

What feedback loop has decreased amounts that increase production?

Positive

44

Applies to release of oxytocin

Neurohormonal Reflex

45

The neurohormonal reflex is initiated by?

Udder stimulation by calf or milker
Stimulation of uterus/vagina for parturition
Stimulation of cerebral cortex by sensory stimuli associated with milking or nursing

46

Drugs that act similarly to hormones

Gonadotropins

47

Gonadotropins may be prepared from?

Pituitary glands of slaughtered animals
Urine of pregnant women or horses

48

Gonadorelin treats?

Cystic follicles, chorionic gonadotropin, cystic follicles, male infertility and cryptorchidism.

49

Estrogen

Promotes female sex characteristics and stimulates and maintains the reproductive tract

50

Synthetic estrogen

Used in dogs to prevent implantation of fertilized ova and to correct urinary incontinence, vaginitis, and dermatitis,
Used in cattle to treat persistent corpus luteum, aid in expulsion or retained placentas and mummified feti, and to promote weight gain
Used in horses to induce estrus in the non breeding season.

51

Estrogen side effects.

Can cause severe anemia, may be linked to human cervical cancer, do not give during pregnancy.

52

Male sex hormones

Androgens

53

Male sex hormones are produced in...?

Testicles, ovaries, adrenal cortex

54

Androgens promote?

Anabolism, weight gain and RBC formation

55

Testosterone

Made in interstitial cells of testes
Used to treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism, produce estrus detectors, and for testosterone-responsive urinary incontinence in dogs.

56

Types of Androgens

Mibolerone and Zinc gulconate neutralized by arginine

57

What drug blocks the release of LH from the anterior pituitary gland (therefore the follicle does not fully develop)?

Mibolerone

58

What drug is used to prevent estrus in adult female dogs and the treatment of false pregnancies?

Mibolerone

59

Adverse side effects of Mibolerone?

Premature epiphyseal closure, vaginitis, clitoral hypertrophy, riding and increases body odor. No not use on cats- very low margin of safety.

60

Nonsurgical neutering drug

Zinc gulconate neutralized by arginine

61

Chemical sterilant approved for use in _________ male dogs

3-10 month old

62

Chemical sterilant approved for use in young male dogs?

Zinc gulconate neutralized by arginine

63

What drug is used as an intratesticular injection?

Zinc gulconate neutralized by arginine

64

Group of compounds similar to progesterone?

Progestins

65

Progestins

Increase secretions by endometrium, decreased motility of uterus and increased secretory development of the mammary glands
Can cause elevations of glucose or suppression of adrenals
Used to treat false pregnancy, suppress estrus, behavioral disorders and progestin-responsive dermatitis

66

What drug increases secretions by endometrium, decreased motility of uterus and increased secretory development of the mammary glands

Progestins

67

Progestins can cause?

elevations of glucose or suppression of adrenals

68

Progestins are used?

To treat false pregnancy, suppress estrus, behavioral disorders and progestin-responsive dermatitis

69

Common name for Megesterol acetate?

Ovaban

70

Megesterol acetate

Labeled for dogs but used in cats for behavioral and dermatitis (Progestins)

71

Side effects of Megesterol acetate (Progestins)

Hyperglycemia, adrenal suppression, endometrial hyperplasia and increased appetite.

72

Medroxyprogesterone acetate are used for?

Behavioral and dermatological problems (Progestins)

73

Common name for Medroxyprogesterone acetate?

Depo-provera (Progestins)

74

Altrenogest

Oral drug for equines
Used for suppression of estrus
Easily absorbed through the skin

75

Drug used for the suppression of estrus?

Altrenogest (Progestins)

76

Common drug name for Altrenogest?

Regu-mate

77

What drug decreases uterine activity when a female is in estrus or pregnant?

Progesterone

78

Progestins are used in dogs to block?

Estrus

79

What drug is used in cattle to synchronize breeding and birth cycles?

Progestins

80

How many classes of Prostaglandins are there?

6 classes: A,B,S,D,E,F

81

Prostaglandin F2a causes...?

Lysis of corpus luteum, which initiates a new estrus cycle

82

In small animals, what drug is used to treat pyometra, cause abortion and induce parturition?

Prostaglandins

83

Prostaglandins are used in cattle for?

Estrus synchronization and induce uterine contractions to facilitate emptying of the uterus (pus or fetus)

84

Prostaglandins are used in horses for?

Estrus synchronization

85

Most important Prostaglandin in VM?

Prostaglandin F2a

86

Prostaglandin F2a uses?

Lyses CL uterine contractions, cervical relaxation

87

Prostaglandin F2a causes?

Bronchoconstriction
Increased BP
Smooth muscle contractions

88

Two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland?

T4- Throxine
T3- Triiodothyronine

89

Hypothyroidism is characterized by?

Decrease in thyroid hormone

90

Signs of hypothyroidism

Coat and hair luster
Weight gain
Listlessness,
Intolerance to cold
Reproductive failure

91

How is hypothyroidism measured?

Serum total T4 and T3 or by a thyroid stimulation test

92

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by ?

Increase in thyroid hormone

93

Signs of hyperthyroidism

PU/PD, weight loss, increased stool production, restlessness, tachycardia

94

How is hyperthyroidism measured?

Total T4 and T3

95

How is hyperthyroidism treated?

Antithyroid drugs, radiotherapy or surgical removal

96

Common thyroid drug?

Methimazole (tapazole)

97

Two hormones of the pancreas?

Insulin and Glucagon

98

Insulin

Responds to a rise in blood glucose and promotes the uptake and use of glucose for energy in cells

99

Glucagon

Increases blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen into glucose

100

Diabetes mellitus is a disease of?

Fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism caused by a lack of or inefficient use of insulin

101

Diabetes mellitus is treated by?

Diet changes and medically

102

Insulin is used to treat?

Diabetes mellitus by keeping blood glucose in the proper range

103

Sources of insulin

Pork, synthetic and recombinant forms

104

Type of insulin used for initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and keep blood glucose stable?

Short-acting (regular,crystalline insulin, semilente))

105

Type of insulin used to control blood glucose in uncomplicated cases of diabetes mellitus?

Intermediate-acting (NPH and lente)

106

Type of insulin used to control blood glucose for longer periods of time, especially in cats?

Long-acting (Protamine zinc insulin and ultralente))

107

Oral hypoglycemic agents work by?

Stimulating pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin
Some pancreatic function is needed
More successful in cats

108

Oral hypoglycemic agent?

Glipizide

109

2 hormones from Islet of Langerhans

Insulin (Beta cell)
Glucagon (Alpha cells)

110

Incidental hyperglycemic agents

Corticosteroids, progesterone, epinephrine

111

Primary agents used to treat hypersecretion of insulin from tumors?

Hyperglycemic agents

112

Hyperglycemic agents mode of action.

Block release of insulin

113

Aldosterone is a...?

Mineralocorticoid

114

Cortisol is a...?

Glucocorticoid

115

What adrenal cortex hormone regulates nutrient levels in the blood (increase blood glucose)?

Glucocorticoids

116

Addison's disease is...?

Adrenocortical insufficiency. Condition associated with adrenal atrophy

117

Signs of Addison's disease

Lethargy, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and PU/PD

118

Addison's is diagnosed by?

ACTH stimulation test

119

Treatment of Addison's disease?

Long-acting mineralcorticoids and corticosteroids

120

Cushing;s disease is...?

Hyperadrenocorticism.

121

How is Cushing's disease characterized?

Excessive glucocorticoid production due to prolonged administration of adrenocortical hormones, adrenosortical tumors or pituitary disorders

122

Signs of Cushing's disease

PU/PD, hair loss, peduloud abdomen

123

How is Cushing's disease diagnosed?

ATCH stimulation test or low-dose desamethasone suppression test

124

Treatment of Cushing's disease?

Destroying part of the adrenal cortex

125

Growth promoters are used primarily in?

Ruminants

126

Growth promoters increases...?

Water retention, protein synthesis, fat deposition and possible increased release of growth hormone.

127

What drug is prepared as pellets for SQ implant?

Growth promoters

128

Anabolic steroids produce?

Tissue building effect

129

Labeled for use in dogs, cats and horses for anorexia, weight loss and denilitation.

Anabolic steroids