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Flashcards in Anti-infectives Deck (104)
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1

Microbes are...?

Organisms too small to be seen by the unassisted eyes.

2

Some microbes have ________ potential.

Pathogenic

3

Antimicrobials

Drugs developed to fight infections caused by microbes.

4

Not all antimicrobials have the same ____________________

Degree of effectiveness

5

Mechanisms of action for antimicrobials.

Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic

6

The goal of antimicrobials is...?

To render the microbe helpless (either by killing them or inhibiting their replication) and not to hurt the animal being treated.

7

Susceptibility of organism determined in lab or ______.

in vitro

8

Use of drug and the response is _______

in vivo

9

Differentiate microbes by...?

Cell wall staining abilities
Special techniques
Aerobic and anaerobic environments
Describe drugs by spectrum of activity- broad vs. narrow

10

Antimicrobials can be classified as....?

Antibiotics
Antifungals
Antivirals
Antiprotozoals
Antiparasitics

11

Narrow-spectrum antibiotics

Work only on either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria (not both).

12

Broad-spectrum antibiotics

Work on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (but not necessarily all)

13

What drug works only on bacteria and are best described by their spectrum of action?

Antibiotics

14

Antibiotics can be classified as...?

Bactericidal or Bacteriostatic

15

Bactericidals

Kill the bacteria.

16

Bacteriostatics

Inhibit the growth or replication of bacteria.

17

Antibiotic residue is...?

The presence of a chemical or its metabolites in animal tissue or food products.

18

The presence of a chemical or its metabolites in animal tissue or food products is?

Antibiotic residue.

19

Antibiotic residues can cause...?

Allergic reactions in people or can produce resistant bacteria that can be transferred to people who consume these products.

20

____________ for antibiotics are aimed at eliminating antibiotic residues in food-producing animals.

Withdrawal time.

21

Antimicrobials should not be used for?

Minor infections.

22

What is important when using Antimicrobials?

Asepsis

23

Antimicrobial use should be based on...?

Definitive diagnosis.

24

_______ use for _______ problems.

Local

25

Antimicrobials should be administered __________

At full therapeutic doses.

26

Penicillins

Prepared solutions precipitate when stored
Solutions must be refrigerated.
Orals are absorbed in the stomach and duodenum.
Parenterals are absorbed at the injection site
Excreted through kidneys but also metabolized through the liver.
Specific withdrawal times as secreted in milk.

27

Penicillins are excreted through _______ but also metabolized through __________.

kidneys, liver

28

Oral penicillins are absorbed in?

The stomach and duodenum.

29

Penicllins have a short shelf life of ______?

7-14 days

30

Penicillins bind with _________ involved in cell wall ________ and __________ ultimately causing _______.

enzymes, synthesis, lysis

31

Penicillins have __________ structures that interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

beta-lactam

32

Beta-lactamase

enzyme produced by some bacteria rendering penicillin useless.

33

Penicillin is more effective against?

Gram-positive organisms

34

Adverse side effects of penicillin?

Allergic reactions, v/d, enteritis, hives or respiratory distress.

35

Amoxicillin + clavulanate potassium

Beta-lactam abic and beta- lactamase inhibitor
Broad spectrum
Skin, urinary tract, wound and respiratory infections

36

Beta lactam abic and beta-lactamase inhibitor

Amoxicillin + clavulanate potassium

37

Cephalosporins

Classified into generations
Poor absorption through gastrointestinal tract
Distribute through all tissues/fluids except CNS
Metabolize in liver, excreted through kidneys
Ability to penetrate cell wall determines spectrum of activity.
Semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotics that are structurally related to the penicillins.
Have beta-lactam ring.

38

What drug has poor absorption through the gastrointestinal tract?

Cephalosporins

39

What drug is distributed through all tissues/fluids except the CNS?

Cephalosporins

40

What drug has the ability penetrate cell wall determines to determine the spectrum of activity ?

Cephalosporins

41

What drug is semi-synthetic, broad spectrum antibiotic that are structurally related to penicillins?

Cephalosporins

42

Cephalosporins are metabolized in the ______ excreted through the _______, and may be excreted through the _______ system into feces.

liver, kidney, biliary

43

What drug has the beta-lactam ring?

Cephalosporins

44

Tetracyclines

Quickly distribute throughout tissues and fluids, sometimes the CNS.
Can bind to calcium and be deposited in growing bones and teeth or bind components of antacids and other mineral-containing compounds.
Broad spectrum.

45

Tetracyclines are used to treat?

Respiratory, urinary tract, ricksettsial infections and bacterial enteritis.

46

Tetracycline drugs are -______ except at high dose concentrations then -_______

-static, -cidal

47

Adverse side effects of tetracyclines?

Renal problems when used at high doses, formation of bones/teeth in young; never IV to horses, fever in cats.

48

What drug can bind to calcium and be deposited in growing bones and teeth, or bind components of antacids and other mineral-containing compounds?

Tetracyclines

49

Tetracycline drug GI absorption can be greatly reduced by?

Presence of food, milk and antacids.

50

Tetracyclines are eliminated through?

Kidneys primarily but also liver.

51

Aminoglycosides

Broad spectrum, should be limited to gram-negative.
Very effective against anaerobes.
ONLY parenteral administration.
Distributed quickly into extracellular fluid.
Eliminated through kidneys.

52

What drug works similarly to tetracyclines?

Aminoglycosides

53

Aminoglycosides are used to treat?

Pneumonia, endometritis, UTI's, bacterial enteritis, conjunctivitis, skin and soft tissue infections, nephrotoxicity, and ototoxicity.

54

Aminoglycosides are excreted?

Through the kidneys.

55

Aminoglycosides are ONLY administered?

Parenterally

56

Fluoroquinones

Broad spectrum
-Cidal
Readily absorbed and distributed
Metabolized by the liver and eliminated through the kidneys and sometimes bile
Used to treat bacterial skin and soft tissue respiratory infections in dogs and cats
Cystitis in dogs
Respiratory disease in bovines
Reduce mortality associated with E. coli
Pasturella multocida

57

What drug is broad spectrum and -cidal?

Fluoroquinones

58

Fluoroquinones are metabolized by the _______ and eliminated through the ______ and sometimes ______.

liver, kidneys, bile

59

Adverse side effects of Fluoroquinones

Formation of lesions in the joint articular cartilage during rapid growth phase of dogs.
CNS stimulation
Safety in breeding or pregnant dogs has not been determined
Not for use in dairy cattle or veal calves
Not for use in egg laying hens for human consumption

60

What drug treats Pasturella multocida?

Fluoroquinones

61

Chloramphenicol

Broad spectrum
Readily absorbed into tissue and body fluids
Used to treat respiratory, urinary infections, enteritis, conjunctivitis
Metabolized by liver
Excreted by kidneys
Has toxic side effects that extremely limit use
Use caution when handling this product

62

Fluoroquinones are _______

-cidal

63

Chloramphenicol drugs are used to treat?

Respiratory infections
Urinary infections
Enteritis
Conjunctivitis

64

Chloramphenicol drugs are metabolized by the ______ and excreted through the ______?

liver, kidneys

65

What drug has toxic side effects that extremely limit use (bone marrow depression) and need caution when handling this product?

Chloramphenicol

66

Macrolides and Lincosamides

Gram positives primarily (macrolides)
Deep wounds, abscesses, anaerobic infections ^(lincosamide)^
Used to treat penicillin-resistant infections or in animals that have allergic reactions to penicillins

67

What drug/drugs is used to treat penicillin-resistant infections or in animals that have allergic reactions to penicillin?

Macrolides and Lincosamides

68

Macrolides are primarily __________

Gram-positive

69

Lincosamides are best for?

Deep wounds, abscesses, anaerobic infections

70

Polymyxin B and Bacitracin

Topical administration primarily
Skin and ophthalmic applications
Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity if administered parenterally

71

What drug, if administered parenterally, will cause nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity?

Polymyxin B and Bacitracin

72

What drug is topically administered primarily?

Polymyxin B and Bacitracin

73

Polymyxin B and Bacitracin are drugs with applications such as _____ and ____________

skin, ophthalmic

74

Sulfonamides

Broad spectrum
Used for protozoal infections (coccidia)
Used to treat acute UTI's, respiratory tract infections, wounds and foot rot
Side effects include crystalluria, KCS and skin rashes
Limited use in food producing animals due to residues in meat, milk and eggs

75

What drug is broad spectrum and used for protozoal infections such as coccidia?

Sulfonamides

76

Sulfonamides are used to treat?

Acute UTI's, respiratory tract infections, wounds and foot rot

77

Adverse side effects of Sulfonamides

Crystalluria, KCS and skin rashes

78

What drug is limited in use by food producing animals due to residues in meat, milk and eggs?

Sulfonamides

79

Two groups of fungi

Superficial and systemic

80

Four groups of Antifungal drugs

Polyene
Imidazole
Antimetabolic
Superficial agents

81

Amphotericin B is a type of?

Polyene (Antifungal)

82

Amphotericin B

Either -cidal or -static
Treats systemic infections
Multiple adverse side effects: anorexia, vomiting, seizures, anemia, and cardiac arrest
Administered in 5% dextrose
Monitor renal function closely

83

What drug must you monitor renal function closely?

Amphotericin B

84

What drug is either -cidal or -static and treats systemic infections?

Amphotericin B

85

Adverse side effects of Amphotericin B?

anorexia, vomiting, seizures, anemia, and cardiac arrest

86

What drug is administered a IV in 5% dextrose?

Amphotericin B

87

Nystatin

Type of Polyene
Primarily treats candidiasis
Adverse side effects uncommon

88

What drug primarily treats candidiasis?

Nystatin

89

Two types of Polyene

Amphotericin B and Nystatin

90

Superficial agents

Griseofulvin
Superficial dermatophytes
Do not give to pregnant animals
Absorption maximized with ingestion of fatty meal
Adverse side effects uncommon

91

Griseofulvin is a type of?

Superficial agent

92

What drug is used for superficial dermatphytes?

Superficial agents

93

What type of drug has maximized absorption with the ingestion of fatty meal?

Superficial agents

94

Antivirals

Limited use in VM
No approved drugs so use human meds
Used to treat FeLV -associated disease, and ophthalmic infections
Topical and systemic use
Acyclovir for feline herpes and avian Pacheco's
May cause leucopenia and anemia in cats
Tissue necrosis at injection site in birds

95

What drug has limited use and has no approved drugs so we have to use human medicines?

Antivirals

96

Antivirals are used to treat?

FeLV -associated disease, and ophthalmic infections

97

What drug has topical and systemic use?

Antivirals

98

Acyclovir is used for?

Feline herpes and avian Pacheco's

99

Antivirals has ______ and ______ use.

Topical, systemic

100

What drug may cause leucopenia in cats and avian Pacheco's?

Acyclovir (Antivirals)

101

Types of Disinfectants

Alcohols
Ethylene oxide
Formaldehyde
Chlorines
Iodines
Phenols
Quaternary compounds
Biguanide compounds

102

Disinfectants are used primarily for ______ and destroy _________

Inanimate objects, disease producing agents

103

Types of Antiseptics

Biguanide compounds
Soaps
Organic mercury compounds
Gluteraldehyde

104

Antiseptics are used on_______

live tissue