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Obstetrics midterm, spring 2020 > Horse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Horse Deck (128)
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1

How long is the pregnancy of the horse?

310-365 days (11 months)

2

How long is the duration of estrus in mare?

5-7 days

3

When is the ovulation in mare?

24-48 hours before the end of estru

4

How do you stich the uterus after C-section?

Sero-muscularly

5

How many spermiums do you need to use in the horse?

400-800 millions

6

How many milliliters of sperm do you need for AI?

10-40 ml (fresh/cooled), 6-10 0.5 ml straws (frozen)

7

What type of placenta does the mare have?

Epitheliochorial and diffuse

8

Which hormone is the best for mare cycle synchronization?

Progestagen injection

9

Which one is an abnormal labor pain?

Violent pains

10

Instruments or maneuvers, which are not used in ventral position?

Wood planks

11

What kind of instrument would you not use for the reposition of a
laterally deviated head in the horse?

Caemmerer torsion fork

12

What is characteristic for Harms dog sitting in horses?

Hoofs of the fetus can perforate the uterine wall

13

You should not perform embryotomy in case of?

A living fetus

14

Which method of embryotomy consists of less wiring?

Bayer-Schaetz method

15

What does surfactant expression mean?

Surface-active lipoprotein in the lung

16

What kind of acid-base stance is characteristic for a healthy neonate?

Slight respiratory metabolic acidosis

17

What is the first thing you have to do with an asphyxiated neonate?

Airway aspiration

18

Which one is the first step to resuscitate asphyxiated newborns?

Aspirate oropharyngeal and tracheal fluid

19

Which one is a correct treatment for low meconium retention in a foal?

Acetylcysteine solution into the rectum, fluid therapy per os and pain control

20

What does hypercapnia mean?

Blood carbonate concentration is increased

21

What is the optimal condition for solving abnormal position and
presentation in large animals?

Epidural analgesia, uterus relaxation, copious lubricant sedatives

22

According to the chorionic villi distribution, how can we classify the
equine placenta?

Placenta diffuse with microcotyledons

23

Which could be the consequence of asphyxiate?

Cerebral hemorrhage and edema

24

When could we talk about retention of fetal membranes in the mare?

After 3 hours post partum

25

What is the best method for correction of abnormal presentation in large
animals?

The nearest limbs have to be pulled into the birth canal; if the hind- and the front legs
are in equal distance we always try for a longitudinal posterior presentation

26

Which obstetrical snare is not correct to use in the mare?

Jöhnk snare

27

What is the incorrect method for correction of hock flexion in case of
large animals?

In the case of small fetus extraction without correction

28

What is the incorrect method for traction without reposition of the hip
flexion in the mare?

In the case of abortion, premature partus or if the fetus is small pull out the fetus with
Jöhnk snare

29

Which abnormality is an absolute indication for C-section in the mare?

Dorso-transverse presentation

30

Which is the easiest way to rotate an equine fetus from ventral to dorsal
position?

With Caemmerer torsion fork

31

Choose the only false statement concerning to the C-section in the
mare:

We open the non-pregnant uterine horn and pull the fetus from the pregnant horn

32

Choose the only false statement concerning to the C-section in the
mare:

Putting uterine tablets into the lumen provides sufficient protection in the post-
operative therapy

33

At what gestational age can you first see a heartbeat of an equine
embryo?

25-28 days

34

At what gestational age should you ideally evaluate a mare for twins?

13-15 days

35

At what gestational age do the endometrial cups form in the mare?

35-38 days

36

At what gestational age are we able to determine fetal gender in horse?

60-70 days

37

What drug would you give this mare today?

hCG

38

What would you recommend doing today with this mare?

Order semen for tomorrow

39

When do you want to evaluate this mare again?

Wednesday

40

From when can the conceptus be detected in the mare by means of
ultrasonography?

From day 11

41

Which statement is false in connection with the follicles in mares?

The usual size of a pre-ovulatory follicle is 100 mm in diameter

42

Which statement is true in connection with the follicles in mares?

At the beginning of the atretic degeneration the size of a follicle still may be 30-40
mm in diameter

43

Which organ produces eCG:

Trophoblasts cells from endometrial cups

44

Mare corpus luteum dependent period during pregnancy:

1-180 day

45

After pregnancy day 180, which organ maintains the pregnancy?

Fetoplacental unit

46

What is the ovary cancer solving method and what are the symptoms?

Treatment: surgical removal of the affected ovary, normal estrous after 6-8 months.
Symptoms: Nymphomania, stallion-like behavior and prolonged anestrous

47

How you detect the start of birth in horse?

Hypertrophy of mammary gland, distension of teats (4-6 day prior), waxing of teats (1-
72 hours prior), CaCO3 increases in milk (1-3 day prior)

48

How is the recognition of the pregnancy by horses (what factors do they
need)?

Movements of the embryo inside the uterus, maternal recognition: INF-like protein,
E1SO4; for us to recognize pregnancy: progesterone, eCG and estrogen

49

What is the time of ovulation in horse?

1-2 days before end of estrus

50

When is it good to mate/inseminate horse?

Second day and every other day in estrus

51

How can you transport horse sperm?

Cooled (in equitainer (1: 70 hours, 2: 48 hours) and iso-thermalizer) or frozen

52

Why is GnRH implant good for female horse?

It pushes the horse out of its transition period (induce estrous)

53

When is the capsule development in mare?

From day 6 to day 22-26

54

What causes the post mating endometritis by horse?

Deposition of semen, bacteria and debris

55

What causes the acute endometritis in horse?

Streptococcus zooepidemicus (75%)

56

Which mares are mostly prone to infections?

Older mares, those with pooling of urine in vagina or accumulation uterine fluid, mares
with cervix that fail to relax during estrus

57

What is granulosa cell tumor and why is it important in horses?

It is the most common ovarian tumor. Unilateral, and produces inhibin, which inhibits
function of other ovary as well. Mare gets aggressive, constant anestrus/nymphomania

58

How do the endometrial cups form in horses?

From chorionic girdle cells around day 35

59

What do you use to shorten the spring transitional period in horses?

Light (also progestagen injection, hCG, GnRH)

60

Which bacterium is responsible for equine metritis in most cases?

Streptococcus zooepidemicus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia
and less common: T. equigenitalis (CEM)

61

What is not characteristic in case of uterine torsion in horses?

The vagina is involved in the torsion

62

What is not informative in early pregnancy detection in horses?

eCG

63

Which would you use to decrease edema in prolapsed uterus in horse?

sugar

64

What are the possible semen preservations, quantity, and temperature in
horse?

Fresh (20 ml), chilled (4°C) (20 ml), frozen (-196°) (6-10 0.5 ml straws)

65

How many sperm must be/optimal in frozen semen?

400-800 million (chilled semen = 1 billion)

66

What is not characteristic of frozen semen?

It is only possible to freeze semen in 10% of the horses

67

When do you inseminate in horse?

Positive probing test

68

How long is the estrous cycle?

21 days

69

Which hormone elevates in horse at the end of pregnancy?

Relaxin

70

Which one is characteristic in the pregnancy of horse?

The zygote develops a glycoprotein layer of 2 μm diameter on day 6-30

71

What do you use in the interseasonal period in mare to synchronize
estrous cycle?

Light-program or GnRH

72

What is Deslorelin used for in mares?

To delay estrous (in case of transporting, competition, etc.)

73

What can predict that parturition is coming soon in mare?

CaCO3 level in colostrum is higher than 200 ppm

74

What is the best way to evaluate time until parturition in horse?

Measure calcium carbonate from colostrum, hormonal change and behavior change

75

How do you treat mares with CEM (contagious equine metritis bacteria)?

With topical and systemic antibiotics. Treat mares only after CEM bacteria cleared
from the uterus (may take several months)

76

What is the most frequent causative agent in horse, that causes
endometritis?

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

77

What are the advantages of AI in horse?

More sperm, less stress, biosecurity, regulated sperm quality, no transport of horses
and preserve semen of endangered breeds

78

What would you use/not use to induce ovulation in horse?

Use: light, progestogen, GnRH, hcG
Not use: ecG

79

What happens in the tail of the epididymis?

Storage, maturation and formation of the acrosome

80

What is the most important thing to do after giving birth?

Stimulate respiration

81

How to best determine infertility in horse?

US, rectal palpation, hormone evaluation, look at recordings from earlier cycles and
biopsy

82

How to treat retained placenta in horse?

Pump in fluid and oxytocin, pull it out and give antibiotics

83

What is the time of ovulation in horse?

24-48 hours (1-2 days) before end of estrus

84

What is the first thing to do with neonates after birth?

Check heart rate, check respiratory function and wash/clean it

85

What is capsule of the zygote?

Thin glycoprotein layer

86

How do we treat the laceration of the perineum?

Do surgery after 4-6 weeks

87

Which levels of the uterine wall have to be sutured?

Muscular and serosal layer

88

What is a special characteristic for equine embryo development?

Capsule development from day 6 to day 22-26, implantation on 17th day and enters
uterus on day 9

89

What is the most important to give to the horse, if it gets a wound
between the rectum and vagina? (Perineal laceration)

Caslick or perineal body construction

90

Do horses have resistant to Trichothecenes toxicosis?

Yes

91

Is the horse sensitive to Zearalenone toxicosis?

Yes

92

How long can semen be kept on a specific temperature before the
quality of the sample decreases?

Normally 24-70 hours

93

What is the incorrect statement about third degree perineal laceration?

Treatment straight away, surgery after 4-6 weeks and give antibiotics

94

When should you give fresh semen?

24-48 hours before ovulation

95

When should you give chilled semen?

12-18 hours before ovulation

96

When should you give frozen semen?

6 hours before to 6 hours after ovulation

97

Why is frozen semen good?

Unlimited storage

98

How long does it take for a horse to form accessory corpus luteum?

Between day 35-150 (200)

99

When is secondary corpus luteum formed?

35-100 (200)

100

How can you mechanically stimulate respiration in the newborns?

Mouth to mouth expired air, tracheal tube with AMBU balloon

101

What is the difference between the treatment protocols of estrous
synchronization and estrous induction?

A. There is not any difference between the two methods
B. Estrous induction is used in non-breeding season. The treatment with
progestagen is combined with gonadotrop hormone (eCG/PMSG)
C. Estrous induction is used in the breeding season and the treatment with
progestagen is combined with human chorionic gonadotrop hormone (hCG)
D. Estrous induction is used in the breeding season and the treatment with
progestagen is combined with gonadotrop hormone (eCG/PMSG)
E. Estrous induction is used in non-breeding season and the treatment with
progestagen is not combined with any other hormone

B. Estrous induction is used in non-breeding season. The treatment with
progestagen is combined with gonadotrop hormone (eCG/PMSG)

102

Which is the most commonly used transducer in the ultrasonographic
examination of genitals in mares?

A. Linear, 56,5 Hz
B. Sector, 56,5 MHZ
C. Linear, 1012 MHz
D. Linear, 57 MHz
E. Sector, 56,5 MHz

D. Linear, 57 MHz

103

What is the earliest time when pregnancy can be checked by
ultrasonography in a mare?

A. 9-12 days after the first insemination
B. On the 16th day after the first insemination
C. 9-12 days after ovulation
D. On the 16th day after ovulation
E. On the 22nd day after ovulation

C. 9-12 days after ovulation

104

From which layer(s) of the uterus should the biopsy samples be taken?

A. From the mucous membrane, the submucosa and the inner circular muscle
B. From the mucous membrane, the submucosa and the outer circular muscle
C. Only from the mucous membrane
D. From the mucous membrane, the submucosa and the outer longitudinal muscle
E. From the mucous membrane, the submucosa and the inner longitudinal muscle

C. Only from the mucous membrane

105

In an estrous mare what does the cross-section of uterus horns look like
by ultrasonography?

A. An apple
B. Grapes
C. A lemon
D. A pear
E. A peach

C. A lemon

106

Which organs are the protecting seals of tubular genitals in the mare?

A. The vulval lips
B. The vulval lips and the internal uterine ostium
C. The vulval lips and the internal and external uterine ostium
D. The vulval lips, the cervix and the vestibular seal
E. The vulval lips and the vestibular seal

D. The vulval lips, the cervix and the vestibular seal

107

Which statement is true in connection with a corpus luteum (CL) in
mares?

A. The CL is palpable rectally in every case
B. The CL is never palpabe rectally
C. The CL appears on the ultrasonograph as a nonechogenic area
D. The CL cannot be examined using ultrasonography
E. The CL can be most successfully examined using ultrasonography

E. The CL can be most successfully examined using ultrasonography

108

Which statement is true in connection with the terciar (antral) follicles in
mare?

A. The follicles are palpabe rectally in every case
B. The follicles are never palpable rectally
C. The follicles appear on the ultrasonograph as a nonechogenic area
D. The follicles cannot be examined using ultrasonography
E. The follicles can only be examined using ultrasonography

C. The follicles appear on the ultrasonograph as a nonechogenic area

109

Which statement is true in the connection with the follicles in mares?

A. Ultrasonography allows the primary, the secondary and the terciar (antral) follicles
to be examined
B. Ultrasonography only allows the primary and the secondary follicles to be
examined
C. Ultrasonography only allows the terciar (antral) follicles to be
examined
D. The primary and secondary follicles can only be examined rectally
E. Only the primary follicles can be examined rectally

C. Ultrasonography only allows the terciar (antral) follicles to be
examined

110

Which statement is false in connection with the follicles in mares?

A. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 30-40 mm in diameter
B. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter
C. The maximal (but unusual) size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter
D. Follicles 15 mm in diameter are usually not sensitive to gonadotroph hormones
E. Follicles 15 mm in diameter usually do not produce significant quantity of
estrogens

B. The usual size of a preovulatory follicle is = 100 mm in diameter

111

Which statement is true in connection with the follicles in mares?

A. All tercier (antral) follicles can produce significant quantities of estrogens
B. The minimal size of tercier (antral) follicles is = 30-40 mm in diameter
C. The secondary follicles can produce significant quantity of estrogens
D. After the beginning of the atretic degeneration the follicles can not be detected by
ultrasonography
E. At the beginning of the atretic degeneration the size of a follicle still
may be 30-40 mm in diameter

E. At the beginning of the atretic degeneration the size of a follicle still
may be 30-40 mm in diameter

112

When (which period of the estrous cycle) must samples be taken for
endometrial bacteriology in mares?

A. During the estrus
B. During the diestrus
C. At any time (it can not be considered)
D. During the proestrus
E. During the anestrus

A. During the estrus

113

How (which method) must samples be taken for endometrial bacteriology
in mares?

A. With endometrial biopsy
B. With a protected sterile swab
C. With vaginal fluching
D. With any of the above three methods
E. With none of the above three methods

B. With a protected sterile swab

114

When (which period of the estrous cycle) must samples be taken for
endometrial cytology in mares?

A. During the estrus
B. During the diestrus
C. At any time (it can not be considered)
D. During the proestrus
E. During the anestrus

A. During the estrus

115

Choose the right answer:

A. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used for synchronization in double
dose as compared to ruminants because the CL is insensitive to the
prostaglandins during the first 12 days
B. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used in one third to
half dose as compared to the ruminants because the horse is very
sensitive to the prostaglandin side effects
C. Prostaglandins in the mares cannot be used for controlling the estrous cycle, only
for induction of parturition
D. Twin pregnancy in the mare can be eliminated by single prostaglandin injection
administered after 40 days
E. The location of the equine CL is deep in the ovary therefore the prostaglandins are
not effective in the mare

B. Natural prostaglandins in the mare can only be used in one third to
half dose as compared to the ruminants because the horse is very
sensitive to the prostaglandin side effects

116

Choose the right answer:

A. Maternal recognition of the pregnancy is mediated by interferon tau produced by
the conceptus
B. Maternal recognition of the pregnancy is mediated by estradiol 17 beta produced
by the conceptus between day 12-15
C. Maternal recognition of the pregnancy is mediated by a 40.000 D
molecular weight protein, which is not interferon tau and produced by
the conceptus
D. The pregnancy in the mare is recognized after the decapsulation by day 22
E. The pregnancy in the mare is recognized after the implantation by day 50

C. Maternal recognition of the pregnancy is mediated by a 40.000 D
molecular weight protein, which is not interferon tau and produced by
the conceptus

117

Choose the right answer:

A. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary throughout the entire
pregnancy (CL dependent species)
B. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary only during
the first 5 months, therafter the foetoplacental unit produces enough
sexualsteroid hormones for maintaining the pregnancy
C. In pregnant mares, both the primary and the accessory corpora lutea are retained
throughout but after the day 250 they do not play role in maintaining the pregnancy
D. The horse pregnancy is throughout maintained by eCG (PMSG) produced by the
endometrial cups
E. The horse pregnancy is throughout maintained by estrogens synthesized by the
fetal gonads

B. In the horse, presence of the corpus luteum is necessary only during
the first 5 months, therafter the foetoplacental unit produces enough
sexualsteroid hormones for maintaining the pregnancy

118

Choose the right answer:

A. Artificial insemination in the mare is successful only with undiluted fresh semen
B. Insemination of the mare with deep frozen semen is successful only when the
sperm is deposited deep into the uterus
C. Insemination of the mare is possible both with fresh and chilled
semen which can be stored in special containers for 24-72 hours
without significant loss of fertility
D. Artificial insemination of the mare is similar to the cattle: 0,25 ml deep frozen
semen is deposited partly into the uterine body, partly into the cervix
E. As the stallion ejaculates into the vagina, fresh semen should be inseminated into
the vagina

C. Insemination of the mare is possible both with fresh and chilled
semen which can be stored in special containers for 24-72 hours
without significant loss of fertility

119

Choose the right answer:

A. Double ovulation never occur in mares
B. Twin pregnancy never occur in mares
C. In mares the only outcome of twin pregnancy is the abortion
D. In mares the only outcome of twin pregnancy is the embryonic/early fetal loss
E. In mares the embryonic/early fetal loss, abortion and stillbirth are the
possible consequences of twin pregnancy

E. In mares the embryonic/early fetal loss, abortion and stillbirth are the
possible consequences of twin pregnancy

120

Choose the right answer: in mares the endometrial cups produce...

A. eCG (PMSG)
B. hCG
C. PSPB (pregnancy specific protein B)
D. PAG (pregnancy associated glycoprotein)
E. The endometrial cups produce GnRH

A. eCG (PMSG)

121

Choose the right answer: the embryos enter the uterus...

A. In mares: on days 5-6 of gestation
B. In cows: on day 8 of gestation
C. In gilts/sows: on day 5 of gestation
D. In ewes: on days 2-3 of gestation
E. In shegoats: on days 2-3 of gestation

A. In mares: on days 5-6 of gestation

122

Choose the false statement: in the mare...

A. The corpus luteum graviditatis is formed after recognition of pregnancy
B. After day 20 of gestation the progesterone concentration decreases
C. The P4 production of the primary corpus luteum is increased by eCG
D. The P4 production of the secondary corpus luteum is increased by eCG
E. Only the P4 producing of the placenta is increasing to the effect of
eCG

E. Only the P4 producing of the placenta is increasing to the effect of
eCG

123

Choose the false statement: in the mare...

A. After fertilization the oestrogen (E2) level is increased and can be detected as a
secondary postovulatory peak
B. The signals for recognition of pregnancy are produced by oestrogens/proteins
C. The oestrogen concentration on the 36th day is higher than at ovulation
D. Oestrogens are only produced by the secondary follicles
E. Oestrogens are also produced by corpus luteum graviditatis

D. Oestrogens are only produced by the secondary follicles

124

Choose the false statement: in mares...

A. To exclude twin pregnancy echographic examination is suggested after day 14 of
gestation
B. We repeat this at day 29 of gestation
C. We repeat this at day 35 of gestation
D. In case of twin pregnancy the reduction of one embryo is advised on days 19-20
E. In the presence of two adjacent embryos induction of luteolysis is recommended

C. We repeat this at day 35 of gestation

125

Choose the false statement: in mares...

A. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 22 of pregnancy
B. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 14 of pregnancy
C. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 29 of pregnancy
D. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 45 of pregnancy
E. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 26 of pregnancy

D. Abortion can be induced with prostaglandin on day 45 of pregnancy

126

When is it always recommended to perform C-section in these cases:

A. If the calf fetus is dead
B. In the mare during dorsotransverse presentation of a dead foal
C. In monstrosities in cows
D. In the mare in case of a Harms dog sitting position

B. In the mare during dorsotransverse presentation of a dead foal

127

What can be considered as a primary indication for a C-section?

A. Fresh dead fetus in the uterus
B. Carpal flexion
C. Relatively large living fetus
D. Absolutely large dead fetus

C. Relatively large living fetus

128

The name of the most frequently used double tube fetatome:

A. Thygesen
B. Harms
C. Ostertag
D. Benesch

A. Thygesen