Hospital acquired infection and antibiotic resistance Flashcards Preview

Y1 MCD Microbiology > Hospital acquired infection and antibiotic resistance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hospital acquired infection and antibiotic resistance Deck (7)
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What are 5 main reasons for the high rate of hospital acquired infections?

Very high density of ill people
Lots of people moving around as vectors
Open wounds are easy portals of entry
Inserted medical devices
Antibiotic therapy


What are the 5 main mechanisms of actions of antimicrobials and their associated classes?

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis (beta-lactams)
Inhibition of protein synthesis (Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides-increased use due to resistance, Macrolides)
Inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription (Quinolones)
Injury to plasma membrane (Polymyxin B)
Inhibition of synthesis of essential metabolites (sulfanilamide)


What is an antimicrobial?

Any chemical/substance that kills a microbe or stops its growth
Provides a selection pressure for the spread of antimicrobial resistance


What are the 4 main mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance?

Altered target site (antibiotic cant bind)
Antibiotic inactivation (new enzyme breaks it down)
Altered metabolism
Decreased drug accumulation


Why is antimicrobial resistance associated with high morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and cost?

Morbidity, mortality and length of stay - more exposure to hospital pathogens
Cost - more drugs, cost of a bed


What are some important multi drug resistance bacterial pathogens?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Clostridium difficile
Mycobacterium tuberculosis


What are the 4 main approaches to prevent hospital acquired infections and development of antibiotic resistance?

Implement strategies e.g. tighter controls, withdraw classes
Reduce use of broad spectrum antibiotics
Identify resistant strains quicker
Combination therapy
Chemically adjust current antibiotics